1. (a) Explain the origins of the Bachwezi.
    (b) How were the Bachwezi organized between AD 1350 and 1500?

  2. (a) Why did the Arabs settle on the Coast of East Africa before AD 1500?
    (b) How did there settlement affect the people of the East African Coast?

  3. (a) Explain the contribution of Ruhinda to the foundation of the kingdom of Karagwe.
    (b) How was this kingdom organised?

  4. (a) Describe the Portuguese conquest of the East African Coast between 1498 and 1510.
    (b)What were the results of their rule on the East African Coast up to 1700.

  5. Describe the role played by the people in the Long Distance Trade:
    (a) Nyamwezi.
    (b) Akamba.

  6. (a) Explain the role of Chartered companies in the colonisation of East Africa.
    (b) What problems did companies face in East Africa.

  7. (a) Describe the course of the Hehe rebellion between 1890 and 1898.
    (b) Describe the activities of the missionaries in East Africa between 1877 and 1900.
  8. (a) Why did Christian Missionaries come to East Africa during the late 19th Century?
    (b) Describe the activities of the missionaries in East Africa between 1877 and 1900.

  9. (a) Why was the 1900 Buganda Agreement signed?
    (b) How did the terms of the agreement affect the people of Uganda up to Independence?
  10. (a) Describe the developments in formal education in Uganda during the first half of the 20th Century.
    (b) How did these developments affect the people of Uganda up to independence?

  11. (a) What were the causes of the conflicts between the European and Asian communities in Kenya before 1923?
    (b) How were these conflicts settled by the 1923 Devonshiire White Paper?

  12. (a) Explain the factors that contributed to the growth of nationalism in Kenya between 1939 and 1952.
    (a) What problems did the nationalists face?



  1. (a) What led to the rise and expansion of the empire of Ghana?
    (b) Why did this empire collapse in AD 1240?
  2. (a) Describe the steps taken to abolish slave trade in West Africa.
    (b) What were the effects of this abolition?

  3. (a) Explain the causes of the 1821 - 1893 Yoruba civil wars.
    (b) How did these wars affect the Yoruba?

  4. (a) Describe the activities of Christian missionaries in Nigeria during the 19th Century.
    (b) What problems did they face during this period?

  5. Explain the importance of the following to the history of the Niger Delta states:
    (a) Jaja of Opobo,
    (b) Nana Olum of Itsekiri.

  6. (a) How did the French administer Senegal between 1848 and 1905?
    (b) Why did their administration fail?
  7. Describe the develoments in Ivory Coast in the following sectors between 1920 and 1950.
    (a) Agriculture,
    (b) Transport and Communications.

  8. (a) What problems did the people of Guinea Bissau face during their struggle for independence?
    (b) How did the African Party for the independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) contribute to this struggle.

  1. (a) Describe the movement and settlement of the Bantu speaking people in South Africa by the middle of the 19th Century.
    (b) What effects did their settlement have on the people of South Africa?
  2. (a) Explain the causes of the 1836 battle of Vegkop.
    (b) What were the effects of this battle on the Ndebele?

  3. (a) What led to the British occupation of the Orange Free State in 1848?
    (b) How did this occupation affect the people of South Africa?

  4. (a) Describe the economic changes that took place in South Africa between 1867 and 1900.
    (b) How did these changes affect the African people?

  5. (a) Describe the terms of the Pretoria Convetion of 1881.
    (b) What were the results of this Convetion?

  6. (a)What problems did Cetshwayo face as King of the Zulu between 1872 and 1879?
    (b) How did he overcome these problems?

  7. (a) How was Apartheid practised in South Africa between 1848 and 1990?
    (b) What was the response of the Africans to this problem?

  8. (a) Explain the contribution of Sam Nujoma to the struggle for independence in South West Africa (Namibia).
    (b) What problems did he face during this struggle?