1. Describe the political,social and economic organisation of the following societies before 1850:
    (a) Banyankole,
    (kenyan Luo (Jo-Luo)
  2. (a) Why did the Bantu leave their cradle land?
    (b) Describe their migration and settlement in East Africa up to 1850.

  3. (a) How was the Hinda dynasty established in Karagwe?
    (b) What effects did the dynasty have on the people of this region?
  4. (a) What facors led to the rise of Buganda kingdom?
    (b) Describe the organisation of this kingdom during the 16th Century.

  5. (a) Describe the Portuguese conquest of the East African coast between 1500 and 1510.
    (b) Why did the Portuguese loose control of the coast by AD 1700?
  6. (a) What led to the abolition of slave trade in East Africa during the 19th Century?
    (b) How did the abolition of this trade affect East Africa?

  7. (a) Describe the origins of the Ngoni.
    (b) How did their migration and settlement affect the people of East Africa?
  8. Explain the role played by the following in the colonisation of East Africa.
    (a) Carl Peters,
    (b) Frederick Lugard.



  1. (a) Why did the empire of Ghana survive up to 1240?
    (b) What factors led to the collapse of this empire?
  2. (a) Explain the causes of the Yoruba civil wars between 1821 and 1892
    (b) How did these wars affect the Yoruba?

  3. (a) Describe the organisation of the Trans-Atlantic trade.
    (b) What were the effects of this trade on the people of West Africa?
  4. What was the role of the following in the political organisation of the Niger Delta states?
    (a) Jaja of Opobo.
    (b) Nana of Itsekiri.

  5. (a) Explain the causes of the 19th Century Jihads in West Africa.
    (b) How did the Jihads affect the people of West Africa?
  6. (a) Why was the Fante Confederation formed in 1868?
    (b) What were its achievements by 1873?

  7. (a) Why did the British use the policy of Indirect rule in Nigeria?
    (b) What were the weaknesses of this policy?
  8. describe the contribution of the following political parties to the independence struggles in West Africa:
    (a) United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC),
    (b) Convention People's Party (CPP).


  1. Explain the importance of the following sites in the history of Central Africa:
    (a) Igombe IIede,
    (b) Great Zimbabwe,
  2. (a) What were the origins of the Mwata Kazembe kingdom?
    (b) Why did the kingdom collapse after 1850?

  3. (a) Why did the Ndebele migrate into Southern Rhodesia during the 19th Century?
    (b) What were the results of their migration?
  4. (a) Why were the Dutch Reformed Church missionaries interested in Central Africa?
    (b) How did their activities affect the people of Nyasaland (Malawi)?

  5. (a) Describe the importance of Gungunyana in the history of the Gaza kingdom.
    (b) Why were the Portuguese able to conquer his kingdom?
  6. (a) What were the causes of the 1896-97 Shona-Ndebele uprisings?
    (b) Describe the organisation of these uprisings.

  7. (a) Describe the methods used by Leopold II to gain control of the Congo Free State by 1908.
    (b) What were the effects of his rule on the people of Congo?
  8. Explain the contributin of the following to the struggle for independence in Northern Rhodesia(Zambia):
    (a) The Zambia African National Congress (ZANC),
    (b) The United National Independence Party (UNIP).


  1. (a) Describe the migration and settlement of the San in South Africa.
    (b) How were the San organised by 1800?
  2. (a) Why was the Dutch East India Company established in 1652?
    (b) How did it's establishment affect the Africans in South Africa?

  3. (a) Describe the achievements of Dingiswayo for the Mthethwa before 1817.
    (b) What problems did he face during this period?
  4. (a) Why did the British annex the Republic of Transvaal in 1877?
    (b) What were the effects of this annexation?

  5. (a) Why were African Independent Churches established in South Africa during the 20th Century?
    (b) Describe the activities of he African Independent Churches in South Africa during this period.
  6. (a) What were the terms of the 1902 Vereeniging treaty?
    (b) How did this treaty affect the peoplre of South Africa?

  7. (a) Explain the causes of the war between the Basuto and the British between 1880 and 1881.
    (b) What were the effects of this war?
  8. (a) Why was the African National Congress (ANC) formed in 1935?
    (b) Describe the role of ANC in the liberastion of South Africa.