1. Examine the causes of terrorism in the world today. What steps can be taken to reduce this problem?

2. 'The struggle for gender equality has not improved the status of women in Uganda'. Discuss.

3. To what extent is the government policy of making science subjects compulsory in secondary schools viable?

4. Account for the negative attitude towards taxation in Uganda. How can this attitude be changed?

5. 'Money is the root cause of evil'. Discuss.

6. To what extent has industrialisation contributed to environmental degradation in Uganda?


Answer one question from this section.

7. Study the table below the estimated magnitude of HIV and AIDS by age and gender in Uganda (1993 and 1998) and answer the questions that follow:

Age/ Gender 1993 1998

0-14 years (both sexes)

15-19 years (both sexes)





20-49 years







50 years + (both sexes) 182,100 225,035
Adapted: Uganda National Operational plan for HIV/AIDS/STD prevention, care and support (1994 - 1998).


a) Calculate the:

i. Percentage increase for each age group of people living with HIV/AIDS.

ii. Overall percentage increase in HIV/AIDS infection between 1993 and 1998.

b) i) which age group has the highest percentage increase in HIV/AIDS infection?

ii) What is the likely impact of such a rate of infection on society?

c) i) State the age group with the highest number of HIV/AIDS cases.

ii) Suggest possible reasons for this occurrence.

d) i) which gender has higher cases of HIV/AIDS infection?

ii) Suggest measures that should be taken to reduce the level of HIV/AIDS infection in Uganda.

8. Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow:

Proceeding to the other qualities before named, I say that every prince must desire to be considered merciful and not cruel. He must, however, take care not to misuse this mercifulness. Cesare Borgia was considered cruel, but his cruelty had brought order to the Romagna, united it, and reduced it to peace and fealty, if this is considered well, it will be seen that he was really much more merciful than the Florentine people, who, to avoid the name of cruelty, allowed Pistoia to be destroyed. A prince, therefore, must not mind incurring the charge of cruelty for the purpose of keeping his subjects united and faithful; for, with very few examples, he will be more merciful than those who, from excess of tenderness allow disorders to arise, from whence spring bloodshed and rapine; for these as a rule injure the whole community, while the executions carried out by the prince injure only individuals. And of all princes, it is impossible for a new prince to escape the reputation of cruelty, new states being always full of dangers.

Nevertheless, he must be cautious in believing and acting and must not be afraid of his own shadow, and must proceed in a temperate manner with prudence and humanity, so that too much confidence does not render him incautious, and too much diffidence does not render him intolerant.

From this arises the question whether it is better to be loved more than feared, or feared more than loved. The reply is that one ought to be both feared and loved, but as it is difficult for the two to go together, it is much safer to be feared than loved, if one of the two has to be wanting.

For it may be said of men in general that they are ungrateful, voluble dissemblers anxious to avoid danger, and covetous of gain; as long as you benefit them they are entirely yours; they offer you their blood, their goods, their life and their children, as I have said before, when the necessity is remote; but when it approaches, they revolt. And the prince, who has relied solely on their words without making other preparations, is ruined; for the friendship which is gained by purchase and not through grandeur and nobility of spirit is bought but not secured, and a t a pinch is not to be expanded in your service. And men have less scruple in offending one who makes himself feared; for love is held by a chain of obligation which, men being selfish, is broken whenever it serves their purpose; but fear is maintained by a dread of punishment which never fails.

Still, a prince should make himself feared in such a way that if he does not gain love, he at any rate avoids hatred; for fear and the absence of hatred may well go together, and will be always attained by one who abstains from interfering with the property of his citizens and subjects or with their women. And when he is obliged to take the life of anyone, let him do so when there is proper justification and manifest reason for it; but above all he must abstain from taking the property of others, for men forget more easily the death of their father than the loss of their patrimony. Then also pretexts for seizing property are never wanting and one who begins to live by rapine will always find some reason for taking the goods of others, whereas causes for taking life are rarer and more fleeting.

But when the prince is with his army and has a large number of soldiers under his control, then it is extremely necessary that he should not mind being thought cruel; for without this reputation he could not keep an army united or disposed to any duty. Among the noteworthy actions of Hannibal is numbered this, that although he had an enormous army, composed of men of all nations and fighting in foreign countries, there never arose any dissension either among them or against the prince, either in good fortune or in bad. This could not be due to anything but his inhuman cruelty, which together with his infinite other virtues, made him always ventured and terrible in the sight of his soldiers, and without it his other virtues would not have sufficed to produce that effect. Thoughtless writers admire on the one hand his actions, and on the other blame the principal cause of them.

And that it is true that his other virtues would not have sufficed may be seen from the case of scipio, whose armies rebelled against him in Spain, whose from nothing but his excessive kindness, which allowed more license to the soldiers than was consonant with military discipline.


a) Suggest a suitable title for the passage.

b) What does the author mean by:

i. "........friendship which is gained by purchase and not through grandeur and nobility of spirit is bought but not secured......"

(Lines 28 - 30)

ii. " forget more easily the death of their father than the loss of their patrimony."? (lines 41 - 42)

c) In not more than 100 words, summarise what according to the author, is required of a prince to rule effectively.

d) Explain the meaning of the following words and phrases as used in the passage, using your own words wherever possible:

i) Charge of cruelty (line 08)

ii) Executions (line 12)

iii) Temperature manner (line 16)

iv) Wanting (line 22)

v) Covetous of gain (line 24)

vi) Remote (line 26)

vii) Pretexts (line 42)

viii) Dissension (line 51)

ix) Venerated (line 54)

x) Consonant (line 61)