1. 'Science has caused more problems in the world than it has solved'. Discuss.

2. Examine the consequences of the end of the Cold War.

3. 'The quest for women's emancipation is the root cause of family disorder'. Discuss.

4. To what extent are corruption and opportunism a hindrance to development in Uganda?

5. 'Federalism is the most suitable form of governance for Uganda'. Discuss.

6. To what extent can rural electrification solve Uganda's environmental problems?


Answer one question from this section.


The table below indicates Uganda's balance of payments position between 1983 and 1990. Study it and answer the questions that follow.

YEAR 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Exports mill.US$(f.o.b.) 36.77 407.9 379.0 406.8 333.6 266.3 277.7 177.8
Imports mill.US$(c.i.f.) 428.1 342.2 264.1 438.2 598.3 658.2 740.0 617.6
Trade balance - - - - - - - -

Source: Adapted from: MFEP, Jan, 1992, key economic indicators, 8th issue.

a) Calculate the trade balance for each year.

b) In which years was the trade balance:

i) Favorable,

ii) Unfavorable?

c) I) Draw a graph to show the trend of the trade balance.

ii) Explain the trend of the trade balance between 1983 and 1990.


Study the information provided and answer the questions that follow.

For years, Pretoria has been waging war defense of apartheid well beyond its borders, with severe consequences for its neighbors. The occupation of Namibia, declared illegal by the United Nations twenty years ago, is clear for all to see. But elsewhere, because the South African offensive is largely covert, aggression against the neighboring states is far more widespread than has been appreciated in the west. Since 1980, in the eight majority ruled states of the region, south Africa has:

- Invaded three capitals of: Lesotho, Botswana, Mozambique; and four other countries: Angola, Swaziland, Zimbabwe and Zambia;

- Tried to assassinate the prime ministers of: Lesotho and Zimbabwe:

- Backed dissident groups that have brought chaos to two countries: Angola and Mozambique and less serious disorder in two others: Lesotho and Zimbabwe;

- Disrupted the oil supplies of six countries: Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe;

- Attacked the railways providing the normal import and export route of seven countries: Angola, Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe).

- More than 100,000 people have been killed, most of them starved to death in Mozambique because South Africa backed rebel activity prevented drought relief. Famine was used as a weapon of war.

- More than one million people have been displayed. The largest single group is Angolans fleeing various South African invasions. But all the majority - ruled states have had to care for refugees of South African attacks and destabilization.


a) Draw a table to summarize the information given in the passage.

b) Giving reasons for your answer, state which countries suffered:

i) Most,

ii) Least from South Africa's attacks.

c) Which do you consider South African's most inhuman act and why?

8. Read the passage below and then answer the questions which follow, using your own words wherever possible.

When people talk about 'Modern Art', they usually think of art which has completely broken with the traditions of the past and tries to do things no artist would have dreamed of before. Some like the idea of progress and believe that art, too, must keep in step with the times.

Others prefer the slogan of 'the good old days', and think that modern art is all wrong. But we have seen that the situation is really more complex and that art no less than old art came into existence in response to certain definite problems. Those who deplore the break in tradition would have to go back beyond the French revolution of 1789, and few would think this possible. It was then, as we know, that artists had become self cortscious about style, and had begun to experiment and to launch new movements which usually raised a new 'ism' as a battle cry. Strangely enough, it was that branch of art which had suffered most from the general confusion of tongues that succeeded best in creating a new and lasting style; modern architecture was slow in coming, but its principles are now so firmly established that few would still want to challenge them seriously. We remember how the groping for a new style in building and ornament led to the experiences of Art Nouveau in which the new technical possibilities of iron construction were still combined with playful ornaments. But it was from such exercises in inventiveness that the architecture of the twentieth century was to arise. The future belonged to those who decided to begin afresh and rid themselves of this preoccupation with style or ornament, were it old or new. Instead of clinging to the idea of architecture as a 'fine art' the youngest architects rejected decoration altogether and proposed to look at their task afresh in the light of its purpose.

This fresh approach made itself felt in several parts of the world, but nowhere more consistently than in America, where technological progress was much less hampered by the weight of traditions. The incongruity of building skyscrapers in Chicago and covering them with decorations from European pattern books was apparent. But it needed a forceful mind and a clear conviction for an architect to persuade his clients to accept an entirely unorthodox house. The most successful of these was the American frank Lloyd Wright (1869 - 1959). He saw that what mattered in a house was the rooms, and not façade. If it was commodious and well planned inside, and suited to the requirements of the owners, it was sure also to present an acceptable view from the outside. To us this may not seem a very revolutionary point of view, but in fact it was, for it led Wright to discard all the old shibboleths of building, especially the traditional demand for strict symmetry. On a house which Wright built in Chicago, he swept away all the usual trimmings, the moldings and cornices and built the house entirely to suit the plan. Yet Wright did not look upon himself as an engineer. He believed in what he called 'organic Architecture', by which he meant that a house must grow out of the needs of the people and the character of the country like a living organism.

One can appreciate Wright's reluctance to accept the claims of the engineer all more as these claims began to be advanced at that moment with great force and persuasiveness. For, if Morris had been right in thinking that the machine could never successfully emulate the work of human hands, the solution was obliviously to find out what the machine could do and to regulate our designs accordingly.

To some, this principle seemed to be an outrage against taste and decency. In doing away with all ornaments, the modern architects did, in fact, break with the tradition of many centuries. The whole system of fictitious 'orders', developed sine the time of Brunelleschi, was swept aside and all the cobwebs of false moldings, scrolls and pilasters brushed away. When people first saw these houses they looked to them intolerably bare and naked. But we have all become accustomed to their appearance and have learned to enjoy the clean outlines and simple forms of modern engineering styles. We owe this revolution in taste to a few pioneers whose first experiments in the use of modern building materials were often greeted with ridicule and hostility. The early experimental buildings became a storm centre of propaganda for and against modern architecture.


a) Suggest an appropriate title for the passage.

b) How according to the author, does art come into existence?

c) How does the author differentiate between new experimental art and old art?

d) In not more than 100 words, summarize Frank Wright's views on 20th century architecture.

e) Explain the meanings of the following words and phrase as used in the passage:

i) Deplore (line 06)

ii) Raised a new 'ism' (line 09)

iii) Incongruity (line 22)

iv) Unorthodox (line 24)

v) Façade (line 26)

vi) Shibboleths (line 29)

vii) Symmetry (line 30)

viii) Outrage against taste and decentry (line 40)

ix) Ridicule (line 47)

x) Storm - centre (line 48).