PAPER 1

SECTION A: EAST AFRICA
  1. (a) What factors led to the growth of the East African coastal towns between AD 1000 and 1500?
    (b) Why did these towns decline?
  2. Describe the organisation of the following societies by AD 1800:
    (a) Nyamwezi,
    (b) Akamba.

  3. (a) Describe the origins of the Bunyoro Kitara kingdom.
    (b) Why did this kingdom decline during the 16th Century?

  4. (a) Explain the causes of the Mazaria (Mazrui)-Busaidi conflict.
    (b) Describe the course of the conflict between 1741 and 1840.

  5. (a) Why was Mirambo able to build his empire between 1870 and 1880?
    (b) What led to the collapse of his empire?

  6. (a) Describe the steps taken by the British to abolish slave trade in East Africa between 1807 and 1880?
    (b) What were the difficulties faced during the abolition of this trade?

  7. Explain the role played by each of the following in the collonisation of East Africa during the 2nd half of the 19th Century:
    (a) Traders
    (b) Missionaries

  8. (a) Why did the Germans apply direct rule in Tanganyika?
    (b) What were the of this rule on the people of Tanganyika?
  9. (a) Why ws the 1900 Buganda Agreement signed?
    (b) Describe the terms of the 1900 Buganda Agreement.

  10. (a) Describe the economic developments in Kenya between 1906 and 1950.
    (b) How were the people of kenya affected by these developments up to independence?

  11. (a) Explain the role played by the colonial government in promoting education in uganda before independence.
    (b) Why did the government become interested in controlling education after 1920?
  12. (a) What were the causes of the 1952-56 conflict between the kikuyu and the british?
    (b) How did this conflict affest the people of kenya?

PAPER 2

SECTION B: WEST AFRICA
  1. (a) Why did the Trans-Sahara trade expand between AD 1000 and 1500?(b) What factors led to the decline of this trade?
  2. (a) Describe the origins of the hausa states.
    (b) how were these states organised during the 15th Century?

  3. (a) What were the origins of the Asante empire?
    (b) Explain the role played by Osei Tutu in the expansion of this empire between 1695 and 1717.

  4. (a) Why was Sierra-Leone founded in 1787?
    (b) What problem did the founders face?
  5. (a) Explain the causes of the 19th Century Islamic Movements in West Africa.
    (b) How did these movements affect the people of West Africa?
  6. (a) What were the problems faced by the Christian missionaries during the 19th Century.
    (b)Describe the changes brought about by the missionaries during their rule.

  7. (a) Describe the French policy of Assimilation in Senegal.
    (b) Why did this policy fail?

  8. Explain the role played by the following towards the achievement of independence in west Africa:
    (a) Dr. Kwame Nkrumah
    (b) Felix Houphouet-Boigny.

SECTION C: CENTRAL AFRICA
  1. (a) Describe the administration of the Bemba state under Chitimukulu Chitapankwa between 1866 and 1887.
    (b) What problems did he face during his rule?
  2. (a) Why were the Portuguese interested in Kazembe in the late 18th Century?
    (b) How did their activities affect the people of Kazembe?

  3. (a) Explain the origins of the Ngoni.
    (b) How did their activities affect the people of Kazembe?

  4. (a) Why did the Swahili/Arabs gain control of the trade in Central Africa during the 19th Century?
    (b) How did this control affect the people of Central Africa?
  5. (a) Describe the role played by the Universities Mission to Central Africa(UMCA) in the spread of Christianity.
    (b) What difficulties did UMCA face?
  6. (a) What were the causes of the Shona-Ndebele uprising of 1896-97?
    (b) How did these uprisings affect the people of Central Africa?
  7. (a) Explain the role played by Patrice Lumumba in the struggle for independence of the Congo.
    (b) What problems did the Congolese face during their struggle for independence?

  8. (a) Describe the administration of Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) under the British South African Company (BSA Co.)
    (b) What were the effects of this administration?


SECTION D: SOUTH AFRICA
  1. (a) What were the origins of the Khoi-Khoi?
    (b) Describe their organisation during the 16th Century.
  2. (a) What led to the movement of the Boers from the Cape into the interior of South Africa?
    (b) how did this movement affect the history of South Africa?

  3. (a) Why did the British annex Natal in 1843?
    (b) How did this annexation affect the Whites and Blacks in South Africa?

  4. (a) Describe the economic developments in South Africa between 1867 and 1910.
    (b) How did these developments affect the people of South Africa?

  5. (a) Explain the causes of the conflicts between Paul Kruger and Cecil Rhodes.
    (b) What led to the defeat of Cecil Rhodes during these conflicts?

  6. (a) Explain the factors that led to the growth of the nationalism in Bechuanaland(Botswana) between 1920 and 1960.
    (b) How did this nationalism affect the history of Bechuanaland?

  7. (a) Why were Bantustans created in South Africaduring the first half of the 20th Century?
    (b)What were the consquences of the creation of the Bantustans?

  8. (a) Explain the contributions of the South West African People's Organisation(SWAPO) to the independence struggle of Namibia.
    (b) What problems did SWAPO face?