1. a) Why did the Bantu migrate from Congo basin into East Africa before 1800?

    b) Describe their migrations and settlement in East Africa before 1800.

  2. Describe the growth of any two of the following coastal towns between AD 1000 and 1500:

    a) Kilwa Kisiwani,

    b) Malindi,

    c) Mogadishu.

  3. a) Why were the portuguese interested in the East African Coast during the late 15th Century?

    b) Describe the stages of their conquest of the coast up to 1510.

  4. a) Why was there a Busaidi-Yorubi-Mazrui struggle for the control of the East Africa Coast?

    b) What were the results of this struggle?

  5. a) What problems did Europeans Christian missionaries face in Uganda?

    b) How did their activities affect the people of uganda?

  6. a) Describe the migration and settlement of the Ngoni in East Africa.

    b) How did their migration affectthe people of East Africa?

  7. a) What were the causes of the conflicts between the British and Germans in East Africa between 1886 and 1890?

    b) How were these conflicts settled by 1890?

  8. Describe the reactions of the following to the establishment of European rule in East Africa.

    a) Chief Mkwawa,

    b) Omukama Kasagama.

  9. a) Why was the 1900 Buganda Agreement signed?

    b) What were the terms of this Agreement/

  10. a) What led to the differences between the European and Asian communities in Kenya by 1923?

    b) How did Lord Devonshire settle these differences?

  11. a) Describe the role of Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) in the achivement of Independence in Tanganyika/

    b) What problems did TANU face up to 1961?

  12. a) How did World War 11 affect the Independence struggle in Kenya?

    b) Whta problems did the Kenyans face in the struggle?



  1. a) How did Mai Idris Alooma contribute to the growth of the second Kanem-Bornu empire?

    b) Why did the empire collapse?

  2. a) Describe the origins of Benin.

    b) How was it organised as a state?

  3. a) how was the external trade on the West coast of Africa organised during the 19th century?

    b) What led to the decline of this trade?

  4. Explain the role played by Al-haji Umar in the spread of Islam in West Africa.

  5. What was the contribution of the following Christian missionaries to West Africa:

    a) Joseph Shanahan,

    b) Samuel Ajayi Crowther./

  6. a) How did George Maclean administer Southern Ghana?

    b) What difficulties did he he meet?

  7. Describe the social and economic developments in Nigeria up to 1945.

  8. What role did the following parties play in the struggle for independence?

    a) Rassemblement Democratic African (RDA)

    b) Convention Peoples' Party (CPP)?


  9. a) Describe the organisation of the Mwene-Mutapa Kingdom during the 15yh Century.

    b) What led to the collapse of this Kingdom?

  10. a) How was the Lunda Kingdom established?

    b) Describe the political organisation of this Kingdom during the 18th Century.

  11. a) What problems did the portuguese face in their penetration of Central Africa?

    b) How did they overcome these problems?

  12. Why was Tippu Tip able to build a big empire in central Africa during the 19th Cemtury?

  13. a) Describe the organisation of the shona-Ndebele revolt of 1896-97.

    b) How were the Shona-Ndebele affected by this revolt?

  14. a) How did the Beligians administer Congo up to 1960?

    b) What was the response of the Congolese to this administration?

  15. a) Why did the White settlers in Southern Rhodesia support the movement for the federation of Central Africa in 1953?

    b) Why were Africans opposed to this movement?

  16. a) Explain the causes of the Chilembwe revolt of 1915.

    b) Why was this revolt unsuccessful?


  17. a) What were the origins of the Khoisan peoples?

    b) Describe the way of life of the Khoisan peoples by 1500 AD.

  18. a) Why did the Dutch set up a colony at the Cape in 1652?

    b) What difficulties did they face upto 1700?

  19. a) Describe the movemnt of the Boers between 1835 and 1845.

    b) How did this movement affect the peoples of South Africa?

  20. a) How was Shaka able to build the Zulu state?

    b) How did this state affect the neigbouring peoples?

  21. a) Describe the activities of Christian missionaries in South Africa during the 19th Century.

    b) How did these activities affect the peoples of South Africa?

  22. How did the discovery of minerals in South Africa affect the following:

    a) Africans,

    b) Boers and British?

  23. a) What were the causes of the 1899-1902 conflict between the Boers and the British?

    b) How did this conflict affect South Africa?

  24. Describe the role played by the following in the struggle for independence:

    a) Nelson Mandela,

    b) Clement Kadalie