PAPER 1

PART 1

1. The volcanic highlands of East Africa are densely populated mainly due to

A. Fertile soils

B. Cool climate

C. Beautiful scenery

D. Mineral deposits

2. Which one of the following lakes in Uganda was formed as a result of faulting?

A. Wamala

B. Albert

C. Bunyonyi

D. Kyoga

3. The type of soil formed in an area mainly depends upon

A. Parent rock

B. Relief

C. Time

D. Vegetation

4. Which of the following weather elements is measured and recorded in mill bars?

A. Temperature

B. Humidity

C. Air pressure

D. Rainfall

5. The major problem facing nomadic pastoralists in East Africa is

A. Wild animals

B. Diseases

C. Poor soils

D. Unreliable rainfall

6. Which of the following minerals is mined around Tororo?

A. Wolfram

B. Phosphates

C. Cobalt

D. Tin

7. The cobalt industry was established at Kasese because of the existence of

A. Raw materials

B. A railway line

C. A large market

D. Cheap labour

8. Which of the following factors has led to the loss of vegetation cover in the Kenya highlands?

A. Pests and diseases

B. Wild animals

C. Climate changes

D. Human activities

9. The development of Mombasa as an important industrial centres has been mainly due to

A. Cheap source of thermal power

B. Availability of mineral deposits

C. Well developed transport network

D. Ready market provided by a dense population

10. Which one of the following methods is used by large scale companies to preserve fish at the coast of East Africa?

A. Refrigeration

B. Smoking

C. Salting

D. Canning

11. The development of tourist industry in East Africa has been mainly favored by

A. Liberalization of economies

B. Increased advertisement

C. Presence of varied wildlife

D. Well developed hotels

12. Which of the following means of transport in East Africa is most suitable for the transportation of bulky commodities?

A. Railway

B. Air

C. Pipeline

D. Road

13. Which of the following types of fish is found in the inland fresh waters of East Africa?

A. Halibut

B. Tuna

C. Prawns

D. Dagaa

14. North -Western Kenya is sparsely populated mainly because of

A. Presence of diseases

B. Semi-arid climate

C. Remoteness

D. Absence of minerals

15. The process of leaching involves

A. Movement of minerals to the sub-soil

B. Weathering of rocks by temperature change

C. Addition of organic matter to the soil

D. Erosion of top soil by water

16. Which of the following types of lakes in East Africa was formed by volcanic activity

A. Tarn

B. Ox-bow lake

C. Lagoon

D. Crater lake

17. Which of the following factors best explains why Kampala has higher temperatures than Nairobi?

A. Kampala is near Lake Victoria

B. Nairobi is far from the Equator

C. Kampala is at a low altitude

D. Nairobi has dense cloud cover

18. Horticulture is carried out near the urban areas of East Africa due to the availability of

A. Fertile soils

B. Skilled labour

C. Ready market

D. Abundant capital

19. Which of the following industries is raw material oriented?

A. Cement manufacturing

B. Shoe making

C. Breweries

D. Bakery

20. The savannah vegetation in East Africa is characterized by

A. Short evergreen trees

B. Thick thorny bush and scrub

C. Tall trees with buttress roots

D. Tall grass with scattered trees

21. Which of the following lakes yields the largest fish catch in East Africa?

A. Tanganyika

B. George

C. Victoria

D. Albert

22. The major mineral exported by Tanzania is

A. Coal

B. Diamonds

C. Gold

D. Iron ore

23. A depositional feature joined to the bay at one end with other end projecting into the sea is called a

A. Spit

B. Bar

C. Beach

D. Tombolo

24. Navigation along the rivers of East Africa has mainly been affected by

A. Flooding of the banks

B. Silting of the channels

C. Seasonality of the rivers

D. Narrowness of the valleys

25. Which of the following problems has mainly hindered fishing on lake Victoria?

A. Limited fish species

B. Attacks by pirate

C. Presence of wild animals

D. Poor fishing gear

26. The major problem facing the mining industry in East Africa is

A. Limited capital

B. Remoteness

C. Poor quality ores

D. Low prices

27. Which of the following best explains the low population density in the Miombo woodlands of Tanzania?

A. Infertile soils

B. Presence of tsetse flies

C. Poor transport

D. Unreliable rainfall

28. Lines drawn on maps joining places with same atmospheric pressure are called

A. Isobars

B. Isohyets

C. Isonephs

D. Isotherms

29. Which of the following cash crops well in the highland areas of East Africa?

A. Tobacco

B. Cloves

C. Pyrethrum

D. Cotton

30. There is more erosion in the youthful than in the mature stage of a river because of

A. Narrow valley

B. Small river load

C. Low volume of water

D. Steep gradient

31. Which of the following tourist attractions are found at Olorgesailie?

A. Sand beach

B. Recreational fishing

C. Archeological site

D. Wildlife

32. The population around Kinyara Sugar estate has mainly benefited through

A. Obtaining cheap sugar

B. The out growers scheme

C. The available social services

D. Marketing their food crops

33. Which of the following describes Equatorial forests?

A. Tall grass with scattered trees

B. Drought resistant scrub

C. Needle shaped leaves

D. Evergreen trees

34. The vegetation type found below 1000 meters on Mt. Kilimanjaro is

A. Tropical rain forests

B. Heath and moorland

C. Savannah vegetation

D. Bamboo forests

35. Which one of the following towns in East Africa has a cement processing factory?

A. Shinyanga

B. Thika

C. Mbeya

D. Hima

PART II

MAPWORK, PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION AND EAST AFRICA

Answer three questions from part ii, including questions 1 and 2 which are compulsory.

SECTION A

1. COMPULSORY QUESTION: MAPWORK

Answer all part of the question.

Study the map extract 1:50,000(UGANDA) KAKUTO; series Y732; part of sheet 87/4; edition 3-U.S.D. and answer the questions that follow:

a) Identify the features found at the following grid references:

(i) 191968,

(ii) 325078.

b) State the grid reference of:

(i) Kyesimbye secondary trigonometrically station,

(ii) The road junction at kiganga.

c) (i) Calculate the area covered by sugar plantation in Kakuto, Kyotera County.

(ii)State the general trend of the All-weather loose surface road shown on the map extract.

d) Draw a cross section of the area along Northing 00 from Easting 18 to Easting 26 and on it, mark and label the:

(i) Conical hill,

(ii) Broad valley,

(iii) All-weather surface road,

(iv) County boundary,

(v) Permanent River.

e) Giving evidence for your answer,

(i) Identify any two economical activities taking place in the area shown on the map extract,

(ii) Explain any three factors which have favored the economic activities identified in (e) (i) above.

2. Study the photograph provided below and answer the questions which follow:

PHOTO

a) Identify the crop growing in the shown in the photograph.

b) Describe the conditions which have favored the growing of the crop identified in (a) above.

c) Explain the: (i) importance of the crop to people living in the area.

(ii) Effects of growing the crop on the environment.

d) Giving reasons for your answer, suggest an area in East Africa where this photograph was take.

SECTIN B: EAST AFRICA

Answer only one question from this section.

3. Study the table below showing the climate of sanitation Y and answer the questions that follow:

Station Y: (Altitude 1112 meters)

Month J F M A M J J A S O N D
Temperature (0C) 24 25 24 23 23 22 21 22 22 22 22 23
Rainfall (mm) 10 51 89 170 211 145 155 216 170 160 96 43
Adapted: Hickman, G. Lands and people of East Africa, p33.

a) Draw a suitable graph to show the climate of station Y.

b) Calculate the annual:

(i) Range of temperature,

(ii) Rainfall total.

c) Describe the characteristics of the climate at station Y.

d) Giving reasons for your answer,

(i) Name the hemisphere in which station Y is found,

(ii) Outline the economic activities that can be carried out around station.

4. a) Draw a sketch map of East Africa and on it, mark and name:

(i) mountains: Elgon and Kilimanjaro,

(ii) rivers: Glalana (Athi) and Nile,

(iii) Industrial centres: Eldoret, Kampala and Tanga.

b) (i) Name any three types of industries found in any one industrial centre named in (a) (iii) above.

(ii) Explain the factors which have favored the development of industries in the centre chosen in (b) (i) above.

c) Outline the problem resulting from industrial development in East Africa.

d) Name any two other industrial centres in East Africa.

5. For any one field work study you have carried out:

a) State the:

(i) Topic of the study

(ii) Objectives of the study

b) Describe how any two of the following methods were used during your fieldwork study:

(i) Observation,

(ii) Measurement,

(iii) Recording.

c) Outline the advantages and disadvantages of using the methods chosen in (b) above.

d) How did the fieldwork study enable you to understand the geography of the area?

6. Study the table provided below showing natural forest cover in East Africa and answer the questions that follow:

East Africa: Area under Forest Cover ('000sha)

Country 1980 1990 2000
Kenya 1,400 1,300 1,200
Tanzania 38,000 34,000 32,000
Uganda 7,000 6,400 6,100
East Africa 46,400 41,700 39,300
ADAPTED: World Resources (1998-99): A Guide to the Global Environment; WRI, World Bank, P292.

a) Draw a line graph to show the trend of forest cover destruction in East Africa between 1980 and 2000.

b) (i) Calculate the percentage change in the under forest cover for each country shown in the table between 1980 and 2000.

(ii) Name the country in East Africa which has experienced the:

- Highest,

- Lowest

Rate of forest cover destruction between 1980 and 2000.

c) Explain the effects of deforestation on the environment in East Africa.

d) (i) Outline the steps being taken to solve the problem of deforestation in East Africa.

(ii) Name any two areas East Africa covered by natural forests.

7. Study the map of East Africa provided below showing communication routes and answer the questions that follow:

MAP

a) Name the:

(i) Water body marked 1,

(ii) Ports marked 2 and 3,

(iii) Towns marked A and B,

(iv) Airports marked C and D,

(v) Railway line marked 4.

b) Describe the factors which have influenced the development of air and water transport in East Africa.

c) Explain the contribution of air and water transport to development of East Africa.

d) Outline the disadvantages of using water transport in East Africa.

PAPER 2

PART I: THE REST OF AFRICA

Answer two questions from this name:

1. a) Draw a sketch map of Africa and on it, mark and name:

(i) lakes: Chad and Kariba,

(ii) oceans: Indian and Atlantic,

(iii) Any two rivers with a delta.

b) Describe the processes responsible for the formation of the delta on any one river named in (a)(iii) above.

c) Explain the contribution of rivers to the development of Africa.

d) Outline the problems faced by the people living along the river valleys in Africa.

2. a) draw a sketch map of Africa and on it, mark and name:

(i) latitudes: Equator, Tropic of Cancer and tropic of Capricorn,

(ii) winds: North-East and south-East trades,

(iii) Climatic types: Mediterranean and Equatorial.

b) Describe the characteristics of the Equatorial type of climate.

c) Outline the conditions which have led to the occurrence of the Equatorial type of climate in Africa.

d) Explain the influence of the Equatorial type of climate on human activities in the area.

3. Study Table I below showing the volume of Palm Oil Output in Nigeria (1997-2002) and answer the questions that follow:

Table I Nigeria: Volume of Palm Oil Output (1997-2002).

Year Output (metric tons)
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
810,000
845,000
896,000
899,000
903,000
903,000
Adapted from: 2003 Africa Development Indicators, The World Bank, p224.

a) Calculate the percentage change in palm oil production in Nigeria between 1997 and 2002.

b) (i) Draw a line graph to represent the information given in the table above.

(ii) Describe the trend in palm oil production in Nigeria between 1997 and 2002.

c) Describe the conditions which have favored the growth of palm oil in Nigeria.

d) Outline the problems faced by palm oil growers in Nigeria.

4. Study Fig 1: Map of the Kariba dam and its surrounding areas provided below and answer the questions that follow:

MAP

a) Name the:

(i) Lake marked 1,

(ii) River marked 2,

(iii) Waterfall marked 3,

(iv) Towns marked A and B,

(v) Countries marked C and D.

b) Describe the conditions which favored the construction of the Kariba dam.

c) Explain the benefits of the Kariba dam to the people living in the area.

d) Outline the problems which resulted from the construction of the Kariba dam.

5. Study Fig 2: Map of Gabon provided showing forests and answer the questions that follow:

MAP

a) Name the:

(i) River marked 1,

(ii) Posts marked A and B,

(iii) Ocean marked C,

(iv) Countries marked 2 and 3.

b) Describe the factors which have favored forestry activities in area marked X.

c) Explain the effects of over exploitation of forests in area marked Y.

d) Outline the benefits of the forestry industry to the development of Gabon.

6. Study Table II below showing manufactured goods exported by Zambia (1996-2001) and answer the questions that follow:

Table II Zambia: Manufactured Export Goods (1996-2001)

Year Exports (in '000s US$)
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
168,000
180,000
194,000
189,000
163,000
203,000
Adapted from: 2003 African Development Indicators, The World Bank, p104.

a) Draw a line graph to represent the information given in the table.

b) Describe the:

(i) Trend of manufactured exports from Zambia between 1996 and 2001.

(ii) Conditions which have led to trend in (b) (i) above.

c) Explain the problems faced by the manufacturing sector in Zambia.

d) Outline the benefits of the manufacturing sector to the development of Africa.

PART II

STUDIES IN DEVELOPMENT

Answer two questions from this part.

REGION I: NORTH AMERICA

7. Study Fig 3: Map of the South showing the cotton Belt and answer the questions that follow:

MAP

a) Name the:

(i) River marked A.

(ii) Towns marked B, C and D.

(iii) Major crops grown in the area marked 1, 2 and 3.

b) Describe the conditions which have favored cotton growing in the New Cotton Belt.

c) Outline the effects of cotton growing on the physical environment in the South.

d) Explain the contribution of the agricultural sector to the development of the South.

8. Study Table III below showing means of transport used to enter Manhattan island is New York city and answer the questions that follow:

Table III New York City: Means of Transport used.

Means of Transport Percentage
Train
Ferry
Car, lorry, taxi
Subway (underground train)
Bus
09
02
13
70
06
Total 100
Adapted from: Hayward J.R.et al: North America: studies for East Africa students, Heinemann Education Books, p10.

a) Identify the means of transport which is:

(i) Most,

(ii) Least

Popular on Manhattan island.

b) Draw a pie chart to represent the relative importance of each means of transport.

c) Outline the problems faced by transport sector in New York city.

d) Explain the effects of the transport sector on the environment in New York.

9. a) draw a sketch map of British Columbia and on it, mark and label:

(i) any two river,

(ii) any one mineral processing centre,

(iii) the Prince George - Vancouver oil and natural gas pipeline,

(iv) railway lines: Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) and the Canadian National Railway (CNR)

b) (i) State any two minerals obtained from British Columbia other than oil and natural gas.

(ii) Describe the conditions which have favored the exploitation of minerals in british Columbia.

c) Explain the effects of the mining activities on the physical environment in British Columbia.

d) Outline the benefits of the mining sector to British Columbia.

REGION II: THE RHINELANDS

10. a) Draw a sketch map of Switzerland and on it, mark and label:

(i) rivers: Rhone and Aare,

(ii) Lakes: Constance and Neuchatel.

(iii) Relief regions: Swiss Alps, Plateau and Jura.

b) (i) State any two livestock products obtained from the alpine region.

(ii) Explain the conditions which have favored livestock farming on the Alpine region.

c) Outline the problems faced by livestock farmers in Switzerland.

d) Describe the measures being taken to improve livestock farming in Switzerland.

11. Study Table IV below showing land use on a typical polder in The Netherlands and answer the questions that follow:

Table IV the Netherlands: Land use on a Typical Polder.

Form of Landuse Percentage of Land Area Covered
Arable land
Buildings, road, water, etc
Grasslands
Woodlands, Health and Dunes
Horticulture
22
18
43
13
04
Total 100
Adapted: Gibbs, the Rhine lands. Revised Edition, p112.

a) State the form of land use which occupies the:

(i) Least,

(ii) Largest

Land area on the polders in The Netherlands.

b) Draw a pie chart to represent the information contained in the table.

c) (i) Name any two polders found in the Netherlands.

(ii) Describe the conditions which led to the formation of polders in the Netherlands.

d) Outline the problems which have resulted from the formation of polders in the Netherlands.

12. Study Fig 4: Map of Belgium provided below and answer the questions that follow:

MAP

a) Name the:

(i) Rivers marked A and B,

(ii) Canal marked C,

(iii) Port marked D,

(iv) Iron and steel industrial centres marked 1, 2 and 3,

(v) Country marked E

b) Describe the conditions that have led to the growth of iron and steel industries in Belgium.

c) Explain the problems faced by the iron and steel industries in Belgium.

d) Outline the steps being taken to improve the industrial sector in Belgium.

REGION III: CHINA

13. Study Fig 5: Map of the Sikiang River basin and answer the questions that follow:

MAP

a) Name the:

(i) Towns marked 1 and 2,

(ii) Island marked A,

(iii) Water body marked B,

(iv) River tributaries marked C and D.

b) Describe the factors which have favored the development of the Sikiang River basin in china.

c) Explain the contribution of the Sikiang River basin to the development of china.

d) Outline the:

(i) Problems faced by the people living along the Sikiang River basin,

(ii) Measures being taken to solve the problems in (d) (i) above.

14. a) Draw a sketch map of the Manchuria industrial region of china and on it, mark and name:

(i) Penki iron ore mining centre,

(ii) coal mining centres: Fushun, Pehpiao and Sian,

(iii) Industrial towns: Antung, Dairen and Harbin.

b) Describe the conditions which have led to the concentration of industries in any one industrial town named in (a)(iii) above.

c) Explain the effects of industrial development on the physical environment in the Manchuria region of china.

d) Mention any three types of industrial products manufactured in the Manchuria region on china.

15. Study Table V below showing total population for selected urban centres in China (2005) and answer the questions that follow:

Table V China: Total Population for selected Urban Centers (2005)

City/ Urban Centre Total Population (2005)
Shenyang
Kunming
Beijing
Tianjin
Tiayuan
Wuhan
5,000,000
2,000,000
11,000,000
10,000,000
3,000,000
6,000,000
Total 37,000,000
Adapted: 2005 World Development Indicators; The World Bank, Washington D.C, p178.

a) Draw a pie chart to show the relative importance of each urban centre in China.

b) Identify the urban centre with the:

(i) Lowest,

(ii) Highest

Population size.

c) Describe the conditions which have led to the large population size in the urban centre identified in (b)(ii) above.

d) Explain the effects of urbanization on the environment in China.