PAPER 1

PART I

1. The areas around Lake Victoria are densely populated because of

A. Fertile soils

B. Absence of tsetse flies

C. The presence of many industries

D. A warm climate

2. Which of the following features is found in the glaciated areas of Africa?

A. Corrie

B. Tombolo

C. Spit

D. Estuary

3. Coral limestone is an example of

A. An igneous rock

B. A sedimentary rock

C. A metamorphic rock

D. An extrusive rock

4. Convectional rainfall is received in

A. Kapchorwa

B. Entebbe

C. Kabala

D. Kasese

5. Which of the following crops grow well in the highland areas of East Africa?

A. Sisal and sugarcane

B. Cotton and maize

C. Tea and cocoa

D. Pyrethrum and wheat

6. The development of small hydro-electricity power plants in Kenya is mainly intended to

A. Produce enough power for export

B. Supply enough power to rural areas

C. Provide employment to the local population

D. Reduce dependence on imported hydro electricity

7. Protection of wetland in East Africa is mainly intended to promote

A. Eco-tourism

B. The crafts industry

C. Environmental conservation

D. Fishing

8. Which of the following fish species is found in fresh waters?

A. Cod

B. Sardines

C. Tilapia

D. Mackerel

9. The number of tourist visiting Bwindi National Park has decline mainly because of

A. Political instability

B. Depletion of wild life

C. Poor road network

D. Poor accommodation

10. The most flexible means of transport in East Africa is

A. Road transport

B. Water transport

C. Air transport

D. Railway transport

11. Most of the highlands of East Africa are densely populated mainly because of

A. Relief and drainage

B. Relief and fertile soils

C. Cool climate and drainage

D. Cool climate and fertile soils

12. Lakes Bunyonyi and Mutanda are examples of

A. Lava dammed lakes

B. Erosion lakes

C. Glacial depositional lakes

D. Crustal warped lakes

13. Which of the following are chemical weathering processes?

A. Exfoliation and frost shattering

B. Solution and hydration

C. Block disintegration and exfoliation

D. Frost shattering and oxidation

14. The major factor limiting agricultural production in Kenya is

A. Poor transport facilities

B. Presence of pests and diseases

C. Inadequate rainfall

D. Fluctuation of prices

15. Which of the following are secondary industries?

A. Sugar refining and fishing

B. Textiles and quarrying

C. Fishing and quarrying

D. Textiles and sugar refining

16. Soft wood forests in Kenya are mainly used for the provision of

A. Timber

B. Plywood

C. Pulp

D. Firewood

17. Which of the following towns in Uganda is most affected by air pollution?

A. Mbale

B. Mukono

C. Tororo

D. Lira

18. Uganda has promoted tourism through the

1. Expansion of national parks,

2. Conservation of bio-diversity

3. Improvement of hotels and lodges

4. Liberalization of the private sector..

A. 1 and 2

B. 2 and 3

C. 1 and 4

D. 3 and 4

19. Ox-bow lakes in Kenya are found on river

A. Nzoia

B. Athi

C. Tana

D. Turkwel

20. The main cause of land fragmentation in South-Western Uganda is

1. Installment buying and selling of land

2. High population density

3. Polygamy

4. High fertility rates

A. 1 and 2

B. 1 and 4

C. 3 and 4

D. 2 and 3

21. Uganda's main export crop is

A. Cotton

B. Tea

C. Coffee

D. Tobacco

22. The feature formed when a block of the earth's crust is depressed between parallel faults is a

A. Block mountain

B. Hanging valley

C. Tilt block

D. Rift valley

23. Isotherms are lines drawn on a map to join points with the same

A. Pressure

B. Altitude

C. Temperature

D. Sunshine

24. Jinja is declining as an industrial centre because of

1. Political instability

2. Decline in cotton industry

3. Departure of entrepreneurs

4. Shortage of labour

A. 1 and 2

B. 2 and 3

C. 3 and 4

D. 1 and 4

25. Miombo woodlands in East Africa are thinly populated because of

A. Thick forests

B. Tsetse flies

C. Remoteness

D. Unfavorable climate

26. Coral polyps grow well in water which is

A. Silty

B. Cold

C. Warm

D. Deep

27. The soil formed as a result of water deposition is known as

A. sandy

B. clay

C. loamy

D. alluvial

28. coffee grows well on the Northern shores of lake Victoria because of

1. fertile alluvial soils

2. reliable rainfall

3. skilled manpower

4. absence of pests and diseases

A. 1 and 2

B. 3 and 4

C. 1 and 4

D. 2 and 3

29. The method used to extract diamonds at Mwadui is

A. Deep pit

B. Adit

C. Alluvial

D. Open cast

30. The taita hills in Kenya are densely populated mainly due to

A. Reliable rainfall

B. Cool temperatures

C. Fertile soils

D. Efficient transport

31. Which of the following tribes in East Africa are nomadic pastoralists?

A. Turkana

B. Iteso

C. Sukuma

D. Gogo

32. The most common type of fish caught on lake kyoga is

A. Lungfish

B. Tilapia

C. Nile perch

D. Haplochomis

33. Which of the following are characteristics of savannah woodlands in East Africa?

1. Trees shed their leaves in the dry season.

2. Trees have needle like leaves

3. Trees are umbrella shaped

4. Trees are straight and very tall.

A. 1 and 4

B. 2 and 4

C. 1 and 3

D. 2 and 3

34. The most commonly used method of fishing in East Africa is

A. Line fishing

B. Gill netting

C. Basket fishing

D. Drift netting

35. Which one of the national parks in East Africa has flamingos as the tourist attraction?

A. Lake Mburo

B. Serengeti

C. Lake Nakuru

D. Tsavo

PART II

MAPWORK, PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION AND EAST AFRICA

Answer questions from Part II, including questions 1 and 2 which are compulsory.

SECTION A

1. COMPULSORY QUESTION: MAPWORK

Answer all parts of this question. Candidates are advised to spend 40 minutes answering this question.

Study the Map extract 1:50,000 (UGANDA) AMUDAT, series Y732 part of sheet 45/2; Edition 4-D.O.S and answer the questions that follow:

a) State the grid reference of the following:

(i) Chololo secondary trigonometrically station,

(ii) Road junction at amudat.

b) Name the:

(i) Man-made feature found at grid reference 150151,

(ii) Physical feature found at grid reference 222074.

c) Calculate the:

(i) Vertical interval used on the map.

(ii) Bearing of the Air Photo Principal Point at Kotulel (grid reference 076114) from the secondary trigonometrically station at grid reference 173050 (show your working)

d) Draw a sketch map of the area shown on the map and on it, mark and label:

(i) Any three types of vegetation.

(ii) All weather loose surface roads.

(iii) River kanyangareng

(iv) Steep sided slope

(v) Colonical hill sand banks

e) (i) Describe the types of settlement found in the area shown on the map.

(ii)Identify the factors which have influenced settlement in the area shown on the map.

2. COMPULSORY QUESTION: PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETAION

Answer all parts of this question

Candidates are advised to spend 40 minutes answering this question.

Study the photograph provided below and answer the questions which follow:

PHOTOGRAPH

a) State the economic activity taking place in the middle ground of the photograph.

b) Giving from the photograph, describe the conditions which have favored the economic activity in (a) above.

c) Explain the importance of the economic activity to the people living in the area.

d) Giving reasons for your answer, suggest an area in East Africa where the photograph could have been taken.

SECTION B: EAST AFRICA

Answer only one question from this section.

3. a) Draw a sketch map of East Africa and on it, mark and name any:

(i) two composite cones

(ii) one ash volcano

(iii) two lava plains

b) Describe the processes which led to the formation of either composite cones or lava plains in East Africa.

c) Explain the influence of vulcanicity on:

(i) Climate,

(ii) Agriculture in East Africa.

d) Outline the steps that should be taken to improve agriculture in the volcanic areas of East Africa.

4. Study the climate statistics of station X found in East Africa and answer the questions that follow:

STATION X: (altitude 1153m)

Month J F M A M J J A S O N D
Temp (0C) 22 23 22 21 19 17 17 18 21 22 23 23
R.F. (mm) 274 231 259 112 15 03 00 03 03 10 48 178
Adapted: Hickman, G, (1995) Lands and peoples of East Africa; Longman, p33.

a) Draw a suitable graph to show the climate of station X.

b) Calculate the mean annual:

(i) Temperature,

(ii) Rainfall for the station.

c) Describe the:

(i) Characteristics of the climate at the station.

(ii) Human activities that can be carried out in the area where the station is found.

d) Outline the problems faced by people living in the area around the station.

5. a) for any one fieldwork study you have conducted:

(i) state the topic of the fieldwork study

(ii) Outline the objectives of the study.

b) Describe how you used the following methods to collect information during the fieldwork study:

(i) Sampling

(ii) Observation

(iii)Recording

c) Explain the difficulties you faced when using the methods in (b) above

d) Outline the findings of your fieldwork study.

6. Study the map of Kenya provided and answer the questions which follow:

MAP

a) Name the:

(i) Industrial centres marked 1,2 and 3.

(ii) Minerals obtained from areas marked A, B and C.

(iii) Rivers marked 4 and 5.

b) Describe the factors which have favored the growth of manufacturing industries in any one industrial centre in (a)(i) above.

c) Explain the contribution of the industrial sector to the development of Kenya.

d) Outline the problems faced by industrial sector in Kenya

7. a) Distinguish between gill-netting and purse seining methods of fishing.

b) (i) name any three types of fish caught in East Africa.

(ii)Describe the conditions which have favored the development of the fishing industry in East Africa.

c) Explain the contribution of the fishing industry to the people East Africa.

d) Outline the problems faced by the fishing industry in East Africa.

PAPER 2

PART I: THE REST OF AFRICA

Answer two questions from this part.

1. Study table I below showing climate statistics for Harare (Zimbabwe) and Libreville (Gabon) and answer the questions that follow.

Table I: climate for Harare (Zimbabwe) and Libreville (Gabon)

Station J F M A M J J A S O N D
Harare Temperature (0C) 24 23 22 21 20 18 17 18 20 23 24 24
Rainfall (mm) 200 175 100 25 20 - - - - 50 100 175
Libreville Temperature (0C) 30 31 31 31 30 29 28 28 29 29 29 30
Rainfall (mm) 250 250 325 300 213 25 25 25 100 275 380 200
Adapted from Minns, W.J. (1991) A Geography of Africa; Macmillan p.36-37

a) Calculate the:

(i) Annual range of temperature,

(ii) Mean annual rainfall for each station.

b) Describe the characteristics of the climate for:

(i) Harare

(ii) Libreville

c) Outline the factors which have caused the type of climate at

(i) Harare

(ii) Libreville

d) For either Zimbabwe of Gabon, explain the effect of climate on human activities.

2. a) Draw a sketch map of Ghana and on it, mark and name:

(i) towns: Kumasi, Takoradi and Accra,

(ii) any one cocoa growing area,

(iii) any one railway line,

(iv) lake Volta,

(v) the Atlantic ocean

b) Describe the physical conditions which have favored cocoa growing in Ghana

c) Explain the benefits of cocoa growing to Ghana

d) Outline the:

(i) Problems faced by cocoa farmers in Ghana.

(ii) steps being taken to solve the problem in (d)(i) above.

3. Study table II below showing the urban population as a percentage of the total population for selected African countries (1965 and 1995)

Table II: urban population as a % of the total population for selected African countries.

Country Percentage in 1965 Percentage in 1995
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire)
Egypt
Ethiopia
South Africa
Sudan
Zambia
26.1
40.7
7.6
47.3
13.0
23.3
29.1
44.8
13.4
50.8
24.6
43.1
Adapted from World Resource: (1994-95) a guide to the global environment; people and the environment; oxford p. 286

a) State the country with the:

(i) Highest,

(ii) Lowest change in urban population between 1965 and 1995.

b) Calculate the percentage of the total population living in rural areas in 1995 for:

(i) Egypt ,

(ii) South Africa,

(iii) Zambia

c) (i) Name any one city in each country in (b) above with a population of over 500,000 people.

(ii)Explain the factors which have favored population growth in any one city named in (c) (i) above.

d) Outline the:

(i) Problems faced by people living in large urban centres of Africa,

(ii) Steps being taken to solve the problems in (d) (i) above.

4. Study figure 1: Map of Liberia and answer the questions that follow.

MAP

a) Name the:

(i) Rubber plantations marked A and B,

(ii) Town marked C,

(iii) Country marked D,

(iv) River marked 1,

(v) Ocean marked 2.

b) Describe the:

(i) Physical,

(ii) Human factors which have favored rubber growing in Liberia.

c) Explain the benefits of rubber growing to Liberia.

d) Outline the:

(i) Problem facing plantation farming in Liberia,

(ii) Steps being taken to solve the problems in (d)(i) above.

5. a) Draw a sketch map of Africa and on it, mark and name:

(i) the Equator,

(ii) tropic of Capricorn

(iii) highlands: Ethiopian and Drakensburg,

(iv) areas covered by:

- savannah grasslands,

- Equatorial forests.

b) Describe the characteristics of equatorial forests.

c) (i) Name any one country in Africa whose economy depends on the exploitation of equatorial forests.

(ii) Explain the factors which have favored the exploitation of forests in the country named in (c)(i) above.

d) Outline the contribution of the forest industry to the people living in the country named in © (i) above.

6. Study figure 2: Map of Algeria below and answer the questions that follow.

MAP

a) Name the:

(i) Town marked X,

(ii) Oil fields marked 1, 2 and 3,

(iii) Country marked Y,

(iv) Water body marked 4.

b) Explain the conditions which have favored the mining of oil in Algeria,

c) Describe the processes of mining oil in Algeria.

d) Outline the contribution of oil to the economy of Algeria.

e) State any two other minerals mined in Algeria.

PART II:

STUDIES IN DEVELOPMENT

Answer two questions from this part

REGION I: NORTH AMERICA

7. Study figure 3: Map of the southern states of USA and answer the questions that follow

MAP

a) Name the:

(i) States marked A and B,

(ii) Minerals obtained from areas marked 1, 2 and 3,

(iii) Industrial towns marked C and D.

b) (i) State any two industries found in either town marked C or town marked D.

(ii)Describe the factors that favored the development of industries in the town chosen in (b)(i) above.

c) Explain the:

(i) Advantages ,

(ii) Disadvantages of industrial development in the southern states of USA.

8. Study table III below showing the average yield of cereals per hectare in Canada (1986-96) and answer the questions that follow.

Table III: Canada: average yield of cereals (kgs per hectare)

Year Average yield (kgs/ha)
1986 - 88
1988 - 90
1990 - 92
1992 - 04
1996 - 96
2,238
2,200
2,531
2,566
2,702
Adapted from world resources series: (1990-1999) a guide to the global environment oxford, UNDP and the World Bank.

a) Draw a bar graph to show the information given in the table.

b) Describe the:

(i) Trend of the average yield of cereals in Canada between 1986 and 1996,

(ii) Conditions which have influenced the trend in (b)(i) above.

c) Name any two:

(i) Cereals grown in Canada,

(ii) Important cereal growing provinces in Canada.

d) Explain the benefits of cereal production to the people of Canada.

9. a) Draw a sketch map of British Columbia and on it, mark and name:

(i) rivers: Fraser and Skeena,

(ii) rocky and coastal mountains,

(iii) Forestry activity centres: Vancouver, Prince George and Prince Rupert.

b) (i) Name any two tree species found in British Columbia.

(ii) Describe the factors which have favored the development of the forestry industry in British Columbia.

c) Explain the contribution of the forestry industry to the people of British Columbia.

d) Outline the problems faced by the forestry industry in British Columbia.

REGION II: RHINELANDS

10. Study table IV below showing annual cattle population in selected countries of the Rhinelands (1992-94) and answer the questions that follow.

Table IV: annual cattle population in selected countries of the Rhinelands.

Country Annual cattle population
Belgium
Germany
The Netherlands
switzerland
3,301,000
16,307,000
4,766,000
1,743,000
Total 26,117,000
Adapted: world resources (1996/97) a guide to the global environment; oxford, UNDP and the World Bank p242.

a) (i) Calculate the percentage of cattle produced by each country between 1992 and 1994.

(ii)Draw a pie chart to show the information contained in the table

b) State the country with the:

(i) Highest,

(ii) Lowest annual cattle population.

c) Describe the conditions which favored cattle rearing in either Switzerland or the Netherlands.

d) Explain the benefits of livestock farming to the country chosen in (c) above.

e) Outline the problems affecting livestock farming in the country chosen in (c) above.

11. a) draw a sketch map of the Rhine basin and on it, mark and name:

(i) rivers: Rhine Neckar and Mosel,

(ii) countries: Luxembourg and Germany,

(iii) Ports: Rotterdam, Mannheim and Basel.

b) Describe the conditions which have favored the development of either port Rotterdam or port Basel.

c) Explain the contribution of the port chosen in (b) above to the development of the Rhine basin.

d) Outline the problems faced by people using the port chosen in (b) above.

12. Study figure 4: map of Belgium showing industrial centres and answer the questions that follow.

MAP

a) Name the:

(i) Industrial centres marked 1, 2, 3 and 4.

(ii) Mining region marked A,

(iii) River marked B,

(iv) Canal marked C,

(v) Country D.

b) (i) Identify any one industry found in each of the industrial centres named in (a)(i) above.

(ii)Describe the factors which have favored the development of industries in Belgium.

c) Explain the contribution of the industrial sector to Belgium.

d) Outline the steps being taken to improve the industrial sector in Belgium.

REGION III: CHINA

13. Study table V below showing annual iron ore production and consumption in china (1980-1994) and answer the questions that follow.

Table V: china: annual iron ore production and consumption ('000 metric tones)

Year Iron-ore production iron-ore consuption
1980
1985
1990
1994
68,072
80,000
168,300
234,660
120,394
140,354
193,471
222,771
Adapted: world resources series: (1996-97) a guide to the Global environment; oxford UNDP and the World Bank p291.

a) Draw a combined line graph to show annual iron ore production and consumption in china between 1980 and 1994.

b) Describe the:

(i) Trend of production,

(ii) Trend of consumption,

(iii) Relationship between production and consumption of iron ore in china between 1980 and 1994.

c) (i)State any one where iron ore is mined in china.

(ii)Explain the factors which have favored the production of iron ore area stated in © (i) above/

d) Outline the contribution of iron ore to the development of china.

14. a) Draw a sketch map of china and on it, mark and name:

(i) the yellow sea,

(ii) river si-kiang,

(iii) plateau of Tibet,

(iv) shanghai town,

(v) areas with a population density of:

- over 250 people/km2

- 100-250 people/km2

- Below 100 people/km2

b) Describe the factors which have influenced population distribution in china

c) Explain the problems faced by the people living in areas with a population density of:

(i) Over 250 people/km2

(ii) Below 100 people/km2

e) Outline the steps being taken to solve the population problem in china.

15. Study figure 5: Map showing the location of Peking (Beijing) provided below and answer the questions that follow.

MAP

a) Name the:

(i) Rivers marked 1 and 2,

(ii) Gulf marked 3,

(iii) Towns marked A and B,

(iv) Railway lines marked C and D.

b) Describe the conditions which led to the growth of Beijing as an urban centre.

c) State the functions of Beijing city.

d) (i) Explain the problems faced by Beijing city.

(ii)Outline the steps being taken to solve the problems in (d) (i) above.