PAPER 1

PART I

1. The major factor influencing population distribution in East Africa is

A. Soil

B. Climate

C. Vegetation

D. Drainage

2. Which of the following features are found in the upper course of a river?

A. Waterfalls and interlocking spurs.

B. Pot holes and levees.

C. Levees and truncated spurs.

D. Waterfalls and slip-off slopes

3. Chemical weathering in East Africa mainly occurs in areas of

A. Very low temperatures.

B. High latitudes.

C. High temperatures

D. Very low rainfall totals

4. Which of the following crops in East Africa grow well in areas of low rainfall?

1. Cotton

2. Sisal

3. Tea

4. Pyrethrum

A. 1 and 3

B. 1 and 2

C. 2 and 3

D. 3 and 4

5. Savannah grasslands in East Africa are mainly used for

A. Nomadic pastoralism

B. Charcoal burning

C. Bee-keeping

D. Hunting

6. Which of the following fish preservation methods are mostly used in East Africa?

1. Smoking

2. Salting

3. Refrigeration

4. Canning

A. 1 and 4

B. 2 and 3

C. 3 and 4

D. 1 and 2

7. Fishing on lake Turkana has been greatly improved through

1. Formation of co-operative unions for fishermen.

2. Improvement of roads in the region.

3. Introduction of new fish species.

4. Use of modern fishing gear.

A. 1 and 4

B. 2 and 3

C. 1 and 2

D. 3 and 4

8. Which of the following lakes has the richest tilapia fishing ground in East Africa?

A. Tanganyika

B. Wamala

C. Kyoga

D. Naivasha

9. Lake Nakuru national park has been established mainly to conserve

A. Flamingoes

B. Crocodiles

C. White rhinos

D. Crested cranes

10. Which of the following explains why population density of Northern Kenya is lower than that around Lake Victoria?

A. Low rainfall and fertile soils

B. Hot climate and diseases

C. Low rainfall and thin vegetation

D. Hostile tribes and hot climate

11. A delta formed at the mouth of the river is a result of

A. Rejuvenation

B. Deposition

C. Lateral erosion

D. Stalinization

12. Which one of the following rocks is formed from animal remains?

A. Coal

B. Coral limestone

C. Sandstone

D. Boulder clay

13. Physical weathering in semi arid areas of East Africa is mainly due to

A. Strong winds

B. De-vegetation

C. Overgrazing

D. Temperature changes

14. Which of the following heavy industries are found in East Africa?

A. Ship building and textiles

B. Textiles and food processing

C. Food processing and car assembly

D. Ship building and car assembly

15. Soft wood plantations in Uganda are mainly used to provide

A. Poles

B. Pulp

C. Plywood

D. Tannin

16. Which of the following is Uganda's leading invisible export?

A. Cocaine

B. Skilled labour

C. Tourism

D. Hydro-electricity

17. The major problem resulting from rapid urbanization in Kenya is

A. Unemployment

B. Shortage of accommodation

C. Poor sanitation

D. Shortage of agricultural land

18. Which one of the following waterfalls is found on River Nile?

A. Sezibwa

B. Kalambo

C. Kinaruma

D. Bujagali

19. Isohyets are lines drawn on a map joining places of the same

A. Humidity

B. Pressure

C. Rainfall

D. Temperature

20. Which of the following industries is an example of a primary industry

A. Fishing

B. Food processing

C. Textiles

D. Tourism

21. The tourist industry in Uganda has improved mainly because of

A. Renovation of up-country hotels

B. Improved political climate

C. Increased advertisement

D. Rehabilitation of roads

22. Which one of the following mountains in east Africa was formed by faulting?

A. Kilimanjaro

B. Kenya

C. Usambara

D. Longonot

23. Large areas of central Tanzania are mainly used for growing annual crops due to

A. Fertile soils

B. A long dry season

C. Presence of pests and diseases

D. Absence of markets

24. Which of the following minerals are found in Tororo?

A. Limestone and beryl

B. Iron-ore and phosphate

C. Iron-ore and beryl

D. Phosphates and limestone

25. The karamojong region is sparsely populated mainly because of

A. Food shortage

B. Unreliable rainfall

C. High temperatures

D. Poor soils

26. Which one of the following types of lakes was formed due to glaciations?

A. Ox-bow lakes

B. Lagoons

C. Crater lakes

D. Tarns

27. The main reason for the dominance of subsistence farming in Uganda is

1. Limited market

2. Inadequate funds

3. Conservative attitude

4. Poor transport

A. 1 and 2

B. 3 and 4

C. 2 and 3

D. 1 and 4

28. Which of the following exotic tree species is most widely planted in Uganda?

A. Cypress

B. Wattle

C. Eucalyptus

D. Spruce

29. The greatest factor influencing population in Tanzania is

A. Presence of tsetse flies

B. Urbanization

C. Altitude

D. Rainfall reliability

30. Which of the following processes leads to the formation of lateritic soils?

A. Erosion

B. Sedimentation

C. Leaching

D. Deposition

31. The major source of energy used in Kenya's industries is

A. Geothermal

B. Hydro-electricity

C. Solar

D. Thermal

32. Which of the following is the most widespread agent of erosion in East Africa?

A. Wind action

B. Glaciations

C. Running water

D. Wave action

33. The glaciated Rwenzori mountain landscape is mostly important for

A. Tourism

B. Settlement

C. Agriculture

D. Hunting

34. Which of the following areas in East Africa is known for tea growing?

A. Takaba

B. Kericho

C. Liwale

D. Maracha

35. Which of the following is the major tourist attraction in East Africa?

A. Cultural sites

B. Mountain scenery

C. Flora and fauna

D. Climate

PART II

MAP WORK, PHTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION AND EAST AFRICA

Answer three questions from part II, including questions 1 and 2 which are compulsory.

SECTION A

1. COMPUSORY QUESTION: MAPWORK

Answer all parts of this question. Candidates are advised to spend 40 minutes answering this question.

Study the Map extract 1:50,000(UGANDA) ABOKE, series Y732 part of sheet 32/1; edition 1-U.S.D and answer the questions that follow:

a) State the grid reference of the:

(i) Borehole south of Abongodero mission,

(ii) Road junction North-East of Alyat.

b) Name the feature found at the following grid references:

(i) 547513,

(ii) 50672

c) (i)Measure and state in kilometers the distance of the all weather loose surface road from the Icheme-Aboke sub-county boundary (grid reference 614644) to the road junction to the south-west of Ogwangacuma (grid reference 627565)

(ii) State the general direction of flow of river Okole.

d) Draw a sketch map of the area shown on the map and on it, mark and label:

(i) Any three drainage features,

(ii) All weather loose surface roads,

(iii) The forested areas,

(iv) A broad valley.

e) Describe the relationship between relief and:

(i) Drainage,

(ii) Communication routes in the area shown on the map.

2. COMPULSORY QUESTION: PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION

Answer all parts of this question.

Candidates are advised to spend 40 minutes answering this question.

Study the photograph provided below and answer the questions which follow:

PHOTOGRAPH

a) State the economic activity taking place in the photograph.

b) Giving evidence from photograph, explain the factors which have favored the economic activity identified in (a) above.

c) Identify the:

(i) Benefits of the activity in (a) above to the people living the area.

(ii) Problems faced by the people carrying out the activity in above.

d) Giving reasons for your answer, suggest an area in East Africa where this photograph could have been taken.

SECTION B: EAST AFRICA

Answer only one question from this section.

3. a) Draw a sketch map of East Africa and on it, mark and name;

(i) the east African rift valley,

(ii) mountains: Rwenzori and Usambara,

(iii) Lakes: Naivasha and Rukwa.

b) Describe the processes which were responsible for the formation of the east African rift valley.

c) Explain the benefits of the rift valley to the people of East Africa.

d) Outline the problems faced by the people living in the rift valley area of east Africa.

4. Study the climate statistics of station Z found in East Africa and answer the questions that follow:

STATION Z: (Altitude 2150m)

Month J F M A M J J A S O N D
Temp (0C) 24 24 25 24 23 22 21 21 22 24 24 24
R.F. (mm) 75 115 155 240 205 160 160 185 150 135 110 65
Source: Minns, W.J. (1993) A geography of Africa, new edition p.60.

a) Draw a suitable graph to show the climate of station Z.

b) Calculate the:

(i) Mean annual rainfall,

(ii) Annual range of temperature for the station.

c) Describe the:

(i) Characteristics of the climate experienced at the station.

(ii) Economic activities which can be carried out in the area where the station is found.

d) Giving reasons for answer, state the hemisphere in which the station is found.

5. For any one field work study you have conducted either as a group or an individual:

a) State the:

(i) Topic of the field work study,

(ii) Objectives of the field work study.

b) Draw a sketch map of the area studied and on it, mark and name

(i) Physical features,

(ii) The different land use types.

c) Describe the relationship between the physical features and land use types named in (b) above.

d) Outline the conclusion you made from the field work study.

6. a) Draw a sketch map of East Africa and on it, mark and label:

(i) the equator,

(ii) ports: Dar-s-salaam, Tanga and Mombasa,

(iii) any one area in each of the east African countries where either coffee or cotton is grown.

b) Describe the factors which have favored the growing of the chosen in (a)(ii) above

c) Explain the benefits of either coffee or cotton to the people East Africa.

d) Outline the problems faced by the farmers who grow the crop chosen in (c) above.

7. Study the map of East Africa provided and answer the questions that follow:

MAP

a) Name the:

(i) Towns marked A, B and C,

(ii) Ports marked D and E.

(iii) Water bodies Marked 1, 2 and 3.

b) State the:

(i) Advantages of using road transport,

(ii) Disadvantages of using railway transport.

c) Explain the factors which have influenced the distribution of transport routes shown on the map.

d) Outline the problems affecting the transport sector in East Africa.

PAPER 2

PART 1: THE REST OF AFRICA

Answer two questions from this part.

1. a) draw a sketch map of Africa and on it, mark and name:

(i) highland areas (above 2000 metres)

(ii) plateau areas (between 500 and 2000 metres),

(iii) lowland areas (below 500 metres),

(iv) rivers: Zambezi, Niger and Nile

b) Describe the formation of the:

(i) Estuary on river Zambezi,

(ii) Delta on either river Niger or Nile.

c) Explain the problems faced by people living in the river valley areas of Africa.

d) Outline the steps being taken to solve the problems in (c) above.

2. Study figure 1: Map of Africa showing Rainfall patterns and answers the questions that follow.

MAP

a) Name the:

(i) Latitude marked 1 and 2,

(ii) Prevailing winds marked 3 and 4,

(iii) Ocean current marked 5,

b) Describe the conditions which are responsible for the rainfall pattern in region marked A, B and C.

c) Explain how the farmers' activities have been influenced by the rainfall pattern in either region marked A or region marked C.

d) Outline the problems caused by the rainfall pattern to the farmers in the area chosen in (c) above.

3. Study figure 2: Map of Nigeria showing population density and answer the questions that follow.

MAP

a) Name the:

(i) Delta marked A,

(ii) River marked B,

(iii) Towns marked 1, 2 and 3.

b) (i) What is meant by term population density?

(ii)Describe the pattern of population density shown on the map.

c) Explain the physical factors which have led to the population density pattern in (b)(ii) above.

d) Outline the problems caused by:

(i) High population density,

(ii) Low population density in Nigeria

4. Study table I below showing the annual average number of cattle for selected countries in Africa and answer the questions that follow.

Table I: Annual average number of cattle in selected countries in Africa (1982-94)

Country Annual average number of cattle ('000s)
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Mali
Mauritania
Namibia
2,767
4,178
5,432
1,070
2,093
Adapted from: World Resources: (1996-97) A guide to the Global Environment: The Urban Environment; Oxford p242.

a) (i) Calculate the percentage of the cattle found in the countries of the Sahel shown in the table.

(ii)Draw a bar graph to show the information in the table.

b) Name any:

(i) Two countries where transhumance is practices,

(ii) One country where cattle ranching is dominant.

c) Describe the conditions which have led to the practice of either transhumance or ranching in any one country named in (b) above.

d) Explain the contribution of livestock farming to the economy of any one country shown in the table.

e) Outline the:

(i) Problems faced by traditional livestock farmers in any one country in Africa,,

(ii) Measures being taken by government to solve the problems in (e) (i) above.

5. Study table II below showing copper production in selected countries in Africa and answer the questions that follow.

Table II: copper production in selected countries in Africa (1995)

Country copper production ('000 metric tons) percentages

Democratic Rep. of Congo (Zaire)
Morocco
Namibia
South Africa
Zambia

28,000
13,000
22,530
199,600
329,200
-
2.2
3.8
33.7
-
Total 593,130 100
Adapted from World Resources series (1990-99) a guide to the global environment, UNDP and the World Bank.

a) (i) calculate the percentage of copper produced by Democratic Republic of Conggo (Zaire)

(ii)Draw a pie chart to show the information contained in the table.

b) Describe the processes of mining copper in either Zambia or the Democratic Republc of Congo.

c) Outline the:

(i) Environmental problems which have resulted from mining copper in the country chosen in (b) above.

(ii) Steps being taken to solve the problems in ©(i) above.

d) Explain the contribution of copper to economy of any one country show in the table.

6. a) Draw a sketch map of the Republic of south Africa and on it, mark and name :

(i) ports: Cape Town, Durban and Port Elizabeth,

(ii) railway lines: Pretoria - Cape Town and Johannesburg - Durban,

(iii) river Vaal

b) Describe the conditions which have led to the growth of either cape town or Durban as a port.

c) Explain the benefits of the port chosen in (b) above to the Republic of South Africa.

d) Outline the:

(i) Problems faced by the port chosen in (b) above.

(ii) measures being taken to solve the problems in (d)(i) above.

7. a) Draw a sketch map of California and on it mark and name:

(i) san Joaquin river,

(ii) highland areas above 300 metres,

(iii) Delta - Mendota canal,

(iv) Market gardening centres: Fresno, Sacramento and San Francisco.

b) Outline the characteristics of market gardening in California.

c) Describe the conditions which have favored market gardening in California.

d) (i) Explain the contribution of market gardening to the people of California.

(ii)Outline the problems facing market gardening in California.

8. Study table III below showing total fish catch in Canada (1985-95) and answer the questions that follow.

Table III: Canada: total fish catch ('000 metric tons)

Year Total fish catch
1985 - 87
1987 - 89
1989 - 91
1991 - 93
1993 - 95
1459.6
1571.2
1575.6
1324.9
1065.3
Adapted from: world resources series (1990-99) a guide to the global environment: oxford UNDP and the world bank.

a) Draw a bar graph to show the information contained in the table.

b) Describe the trend of fish catch in Canada between 1985 and 1995.

c) Name any two:

(i) Fishing grounds in Canada,

(ii) Fish types caught in each of the fishing grounds named in (c) (i) above.

d) Explain the conditions which have favored fishing in any one fishing ground named in (c) (i) above.

9. Study figure 3. Map of the Great Lakes region provided below and answer the questions that follow.

MAP

a) Name the:

(i) Lakes marked A and B,

(ii) Canal marked C,

(iii) Minerals obtained from areas marked 1 and 2,

(iv) Iron and steel industrial centres marked 3, 4 and 5.

b) Describe the factors that have led to the development of iron and steel industries in the great lakes region.

c) Explain the problems resulting from the concentration of industries in the great lakes region.

d) Outline the steps being taken to solve the problems in (c) above.

REGION II: RHINELANDS

10. a) draw a sketch map of the Ruhr industrial region of Germany and on it, mark and name:

(i) rivers: Lippe and Ruhr ,

(ii) Wesel - Dattel canal,

(iii) Concealed and exposed coal fields,

(iv) Industrial centres: Duisburg, Essen and Dortmund.

b) (i) Name any three industries found in the Ruhr industrial region.

(ii)Describe the factors which have favored the development of any one industry named in (b)(i) above.

c) Explain the problems resulting from the development of large industrial centres in the Ruhr region.

d) Outline the measures being taken to solve the problems in (c) above.

11. Study figure 4: Map of the Rhine waterway and answer the questions that follow.

MAP

a) Name the:

(i) Water body marked 1,

(ii) Ports marked 2 and 3,

(iii) Rivers marked A and B,

(iv) Canal marked 4,

(v) Country marked C,

b) Describe the factors which contributed to the development of R. Rhine as an important waterway.

c) Explain the benefits of the Rhine waterway to the Rhine lands.

d) Outline the:

(i) Problems faced by Rhine waterway,

(ii) Steps being taken to solve the problems in (d)(i) above.

12. Study table IV below showing average cereal production for Belgium (19986-96) and answer the questions which follow.

Table IV: average cereal production for Belgium (1986-96)

Year Average cereal production (metric ton)

1986 - 88 NRM
1988 - 90
1990 - 92
1992 - 94
1994 - 96

2,211,000
2,313,000
2,213,000
2,260,000
2,468,000
Adapted: world resources series (1990-99)a guide to the global environment, oxford UNDP and the world bank

a) Draw a line graph to show the information given in the table.

b) Describe the:

(i) Trend of cereal production in Belgium between 1986 and 1996,

(ii) Conditions which have favored cereal production in Belgium.

c) Explain the benefits of cereal production to the people of Belgium.

d) Name any two cereal crops grown in Belgium.

REGION III: CHINA

13. Study table V below showing employment in small scale industrial establishment in china and answer the questions which follow.

Table V: employment in small scale industrial establishments in china.

Types of industrial establishment Number of establishments Total number of people employed/ establishment Percentage
Electrical
Food manufacture
Manufacture of machinery
Rubber products
Textile manufacture
Transport and equipment
162
458
410
845
964
109
7,800
9,600
6,100
31,300
71,100
13,900
5.6
6.9
4.4
22.4
50.8
9.9
TOTAL 2,948 139,800 100
Adapted from Honey bone, R.C. and Graves, N,J,North America and Asia: a geography for schools p.398

a) State the establishment with the:

(i) Highest,

(ii) Lowest average number of persons employed per establishment.

b) Draw a pie chart to show the total number of people employed per establishment.

c) Describe the conditions which have favored the establishment of small scale industries in china.

d) Explain the contribution of small scale industries to the people of china.

14. a) Draw a sketch map of china and on it, mark and label:

(i) tropic of cancer,

(ii) the south china sea,

(iii) river Yangtze - kiang,

(iv) areas with annual rainfall of

- over 1000 mm,

- 500 - 1000 mm,

- Below 500 mm,

b) Describe the factors which have influenced rainfall distribution in china.

c) Explain the effects of rainfall on agriculture in china.

d) Outline the problems faced by the farmers living in areas with rainfall total of

(i) Over 1000 mm,

(ii) Below 500 mm.

15. Study figure 5: Map of the Yangtze delta region and answer the questions which follow.

MAP

a) Name the:

(i) Rivers marked 1 and 2,

(ii) Canal marked 3,

(iii) Town marked A and B,

(iv) Railway line marked C,

(v) Plantation crop grown in areas marked D.

b) Describe the factors which have favored agriculture in the Yangtze delta region.

c) Explain the contribution of agriculture to the development of the Yangtze delta region.

d) Outline the problems faced by farmers in the Yangtze delta region.