PAPER 1

PART I

1. The highlands of Kenya are densely populated mainly because, they

A. Are centrally located,

B. Have volcanic soils

C. Have reliable rainfall

D. Have an efficient transport and communication network

2. Inselbergs found in the plains of North eastern Uganda are a result of

A. Hard intrusive rocks left after soft rock was worn away by erosion,

B. Folding of the land scape which led to the formation of these features

C. Block of land forced to rise up above the land surface

D. Exposure of volcanic plugs after erosion

3. Which of the following is an example of metamorphic rock?

A. Granite

B. Sand stones

C. Marble

D. Chalk

4. Which one of the following best explains why the climate of Uganda is not truly equatorial? It

A. Occupies a high plateau region

B. Has a large surface water area

C. Lacks equatorial forests

D. Has a big area lying in the northern hemisphere

5. In E.africa crop rotation help the farmer to

A. Maintain soil fertility

B. Grow a variety of crops

C. Keep his piece of land occupied

D. Grow one crop at a time

6. Which one of the following minerals is non-metallic?

A. Gold

B. Mice

C. Wolfram

D. Beryllium

7. Large areas of softwood trees have been planted in the Trans-Nzoia area of Kenya to

A. Provide pulp for paper making

B. Provide timber for construction

C. Control soil erosion

D. Increase timber exports

8. The greatest problem facing the fishing industry in E, Africa is

A. Marketing of the fish caught

B. Low fish population

C. Swampy vegetation on the lake shores

D. Poor fishing equipment

9. Most towns of E.Africa originated from

A. Trading and industrial centres

B. Trading and administrative centres

C. Farming and trading centres

D. Mining and industrial centres

10. Which of the following is the most important benefits of the tourist industry in E.africa? it has

A. Attracted more people to east Africa.

B. Created good relationship between the people of east Africa and other countries

C. Led in the conservation of wild life

D. Become an important invisible export

11. The benefit of the Tazara railway to Tanzania is the

A. Profit from transport to Zambia

B. Development of port Tanga

C. Employment of more people

D. Stimulation of development in the southern highlands

12. Most areas in E.Africa which are important for Tea growing have

A. Gentle slopes, acidic soils and high temperature

B. Alkaline soils, gentle slopes and high rainfall

C. High rainfall, high temperatures and acidic soils

D. Low temperatures, acidic soils and gentle slopes

13. The type of settlement pattern which develops along communication routes in East Africa is

A. Dispersed settlement

B. Nucleated settlement

C. Linear settlement

D. Clustered settlement

14. The feature formed where three or more arêtes meet on glaciated mountains of East Africa is a

A. Cirque

B. Hanging valley

C. Pyramidal peak

D. Hollow

15. The term weathering refers to the

A. Deposition of rocks into rivers and lakes

B. Breaking up of rocks

C. Removal of rocks from one place to another

D. Recording of elements of weather

16. The most important cause of temperature differences in East Africa is the

A. Great variations in altitude

B. Distance from the Indian ocean

C. Distance from the equator

D. Variation in cloud cover

17. Farming in Uganda can be improved by

A. Crop diversification

B. Building processing industries

C. Importing capital intensive farming implements

D. Changing the present land tenure system

18. Which of the following explains why the oil refineries in East Africa are located at the coast?

A. The required personnel for the industry live at the coast

B. It is cheaper to run this industry near a port

C. The mineral is mined there

D. Pipelines are not good for transporting crude oil

19. The most outstanding problem facing forest exploitation in east Africa is the

A. Most trees have low quality timber

B. Some forests are not easily penetrated

C. The trees with valuable timber are scattered over a wide area in forest

D. The people exploiting forests use poor tools

20. The main type of fish caught in L.Tanganyika is

A. Dagas

B. Tilapia

C. Bagrus

D. Haplochromis

21. Which of the following statements best explains why Mombasa has developed into an important entre-port? It has

A. Links with the world trade routes

B. A deep sheltered harbor

C. Connections with the Arab world

D. Extensive hinterland

22. Market gardening is mostly practiced near urban areas because

A. Of the presence of market

B. Its products are perishable

C. Of abundant skilled labor

D. Of the availability of water for irrigation

23. One of the major problems affecting the development of the tourist industry in Uganda is

A. Lack of skilled personal in hotel management

B. Destruction of wild life in the national parks

C. Competition from other East Africa states

D. Tourism is a seasonal activity

24. River transport in E.africa is not well developed because most rivers

A. Are seasonal in nature

B. Have floating vegetation

C. Carry plenty of sediments

D. Have rapids and falls

25. The main reason why governments conducted censuses to

A. Find out the number of people who have died

B. Determine the number of people born in a given year

C. Plan services for the people

D. Determine the number of foreigners in the country

26. The upper course of a river is characterized by

A. Open sided V-shaped valleys

B. Interlocking spurs and leaves

C. Bluffs and meanders

D. Flood plain and ox-bow lakes

27. Soil erosion on mountain slopes of East African can be best controlled by

A. Contour ploughing

B. Planting short crops

C. Inter cropping

D. Applying fertilizers to the soils

28. The term "relative humidity" refers to the amount of water vapour that the air

A. Plots are generally too small

B. Most of the crops are perennial

C. Farmers do not have the money to pay for it

D. Relief is not suitable for the use of factors

29. Mechanization is not profitable for the average farmer in Uganda because

A. Plots are generally too small

B. Most of the crops are perennial

C. Farmers do not have the money to pay for it

D. Relief is not suitable for the use of factors

30. Which one of the following factors is most responsible for the underdevelopment of the mining industry in East Africa?

A. The mineral deposits are in remote areas

B. The minerals are scattered and occur in small quantities

C. Most minerals need deep pit mining

D. Mining would destroy agricultural land

31. Which one of the following groups of landforms are found along the coast of east Africa?

A. Cliffs, stacks, conelets

B. Horst s, lagoons, stacks

C. Caves, lagoons, calderas

D. Stacks, caves, lagoons

32. The Serengeti plains are kept as game reserves because

A. Savannah, heath, forests

B. Savannah, forests, health

C. Forests, savannah, health

D. Health, forests, savannah

33. The Serengeti plains are kept as game reserves because

A. The soils are seriously eroded

B. There is very little water available

C. They are far from communication net work

D. They are sparsely populated

34. Which of the following characteristics are true of most of the E. African rift valley lakes?

A. Long, narrow and deep

B. Long, narrow and shallow

C. Wide, shallow and salty

D. Wide, deep and salty

35. The east African governments have paid much attention to the development of feeder roads because the roads

A. Are the main export routes

B. Link production areas with processing plants

C. Link administrative centres with production areas

D. Enhance the supply of goods to the rural areas

PART II

MAPWORK, PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION AND EAST AFRICA

You must answer three questions from part II, including questions 1 and 2 which are compulsory

SECTION A

1. COMPULSORY QUESTION - MAPWORK

Answer all parts of this question. Candidates are advised to spend 40 minutes answering this question.

Study the map extract 1:50,000 (UGANDA) Nagongera, part of sheet 64/1, series Y732 Edition 2-U.S.D and answer the following questions:

a) Give the grid reference of the following:

(i) Nabiganda road junction

(ii) Nagongera railway station

b) State the features found at the following grid references;

(i) 255058,

(ii) 145850

c) (i) State the general direction of flow of river Manafwa

(ii)Give two reasons for your answer in c(i) above

d) Measure and state he distance in kilometers of the railway line between magodes station (grid reference 284923) and the level crossing at grid reference 264012

e) Draw a sketch map of the area between Easting 1200 and Easting 2600 and northing 8300 to 0000. On it, mark and name

(i) A dry weather road,

(ii) A rail way line

(iii) A power line

(iv) A papyrus swamp

(v) A quarry

(vi) An oil mill

f) (i) Identify and name the types of settlement in the area shown on the map.

(ii)Explain the relationship between settlement and drainage.

g) Giving evidence from the map, state three economic activities carried out in the area.

2. COMPULSORY QUESTION: PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION

Answer all parts of this question, candidates are advised to spend 20 minutes answering this question.

Study the photograph provided below and answer the questions that follow:

PHOTOGRAPH

a) (i) State the economic activity taking place in the area shown in the photograph.

(ii)Using evidence from the photograph, mention the factors that favored the economic activity stated in (a)(i0 above.

b) (i)What changes have occurred in the type of vegetation shown in the foreground of photograph?

(ii)Outline the factors that led to the changes in the type of vegetation mentioned in (b)(i) above.

c) Name one form of land use shown in the background of the photograph.

d) If you were an agricultural extension officer in this area, what advice would you give to the farmers?

SECTION B

Answer one question from this section. Special credit will be given for the appropriate use of local examples you have studied through fieldwork.

3. Study figure 1 below showing a block mountain and answer the questions that follow:

IMAGE

a) Name the features marked P, Q, R, S and T.

b) (i) Describe how a block mountain is formed.

(ii)Name two areas in East Africa where Block Mountains are found.

c) Giving specific examples outline the economic benefits of Block Mountains to the surrounding areas.

d) State any three problems that are faced by the people in the area where Block Mountains are found.

4. a) Draw an anointed sketch section of a mountainous area in East Africa showing the natural vegetation zones.

b) for any one zone,

(i) describe the characteristics of the vegetation,

(ii) Explain the factors responsible for its growth.

c) (i) State the economic values of the different vegetation zones in (a) above

(ii)Describe the problems that would face any one of the economic activities mentioned in c (i) above.

5. With reference to any field study you have carried out either as a class or individually

a) (i) state the topic,

(ii)Outline the objectives,

(iii) mention the methods used.

b) Explain how the methods in a(iii) above were used to collect information for the objectives of the study.

c) Using illustrations, describe what you discovered from your field study.

6. a) for either Nairobi or Jinja,

(i) name four industries,

(ii) with the help of a sketch map, explain why the area has grown into an important industrial centre.

b) (i) Describe the problems resulting from the development of industries in this area.

(ii)Outline the steps being taken to solve the problems in b(i) above.

c)Mention two other industrial towns in East Africa.

7. "Probably the worst soil erosion in the whole of East Africa is found in the Kondoa District of Tanzania. This will serve as a striking example of damage tat can be done ............. Both the vegetation and crops are in poor condition. There is much bare ground."

Adapted: Hickman, G.M; Dickins, W.H.G. with woods, E. the lands and peoples of East Africa.

a) What are the effects of soil erosion motioned in the passage above?

b) With the aid of a sketch diagram, explain the formation of any two erosional features in East Africa.

c) State any three causes of soil erosion in East Africa.

(i) A part from Kondoa district, mention any other two areas in E. Africa experiencing severe soil erosion.

(ii) Give any five steps that have been taken to control soil erosion in areas mentioned in d(i).

PAPER 2

PART I: THE REST OF AFRICA

Answer two questions from this part

1. a) Draw a sketch map of Africa and on it, mark and name the following climatic region :

(i) desert,

(ii) equatorial,

(iii) tropical savannah,

(iv) Mediterranean.

b) Describe the characteristics of the Mediterranean type of;

(i) Climate,

(ii) Vegetation.

c)(i) For any one country located within the equatorial region of Africa, state the economic activities carried out.

(ii)Explain the influence of climate on any economic activity stated in c(i) above.

2. a) What is meant by term "plantation agriculture"?

b) Name any two countries outside East Africa where plantation agriculture is practiced.

c) For any one country named in (b) above.

(i) state the crops grown under plantation agriculture,

(ii) describe the conditions favoring plantation agriculture.

d) Explain the:

(i) Advantages,

(ii) Disadvantages of plantation agriculture in any one country named in (b) above.

3. Study fig.1. map showing part of Ghana and answer the questions that follow:

MAP

a) Name the:

(i) Minerals obtained from places A and B,

(ii) Town marked C and Port marked D,

(iii) Dam marked E,

(iv) Lake marked F.

b) (i) What is meant by the term "multi-purpose scheme"?

(ii)Explain the physical and human factors that led to the establishment of a multi purpose scheme in the area shown on the map.

c) Outline the:

(i) Benefits of the scheme,

(ii) Problems resulting from the establishment of the scheme.

4. Study fig.2, Outline map of Africa, and answer the questions that follow.

MAP

a) Name:

(i) Countries A and B,

(ii) Oceans 1 and 2,

(iii) Ocean currents W, X, Y and Z.

b) Countries A and B have important fishing grounds. For any one of these countries:

(i) Explain the conditions favoring fishing activities

(ii) Describe the methods used for catching fish.

c) (i) What problems face the fishing industry in the country chosen in (b) above?

(ii) Suggest ways in which the fishing industry in the chosen country could be improved.

5. Study table I below and answer the question that follow.

Table I: Liberia: VALUE OF MAJOR EXPORTS (US $ million) 1976-80

Export 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 total export value
Iron ore
Rubber
Logs
Diamonds
Coffee
331.6
53.3
34.6
16.6
4.5
273.5
59.1
29.3
21.4
6.6
274.3
69.1
46.7
30.3
43.0
290.0
87.8
50.1
39.6
25.3
310.2
102.2
65.3
33.5
27.1
1,479.6
371.5
226.0
141.4
106.5
Adapted from Minns, Africa p79.

a) Draw a bar graph to show the total export value for the period 1976-80.

b) Giving evidence from the table.

(i) Explain how Liberia has diversified her exports.

(ii) State the advantages of diversifying exports.

c) (i) Mention two areas in Liberia where iron ore is mined.

(ii)Describe how iron ore is mined.

d) (i) Explain how the mining of iron ore has benefited Liberia.

(ii)Name two other countries in Africa where iron ore is mined.

6. a) Draw a sketch map of southern Africa and on it, mark and name:

(i) the Witwatersrand (Rand),

(ii) towns: Johannesburg, Witbank and Vereeniging,

(iii) Ports; Durban, east London and Maputo.

b) Explain the factors favoring the development of industries on the Witwatersrand.

c) What problems face industrial development in the Witwatersrand?

d) Name three industrial centres in southern Africa outside the Witwatersrand.

PART II:

STUDIES IN DEVELOPMENT

Answer two questions from this part.

REGION I: NORTH AMERICA

7. Study figure 3. Sketch map of U.S.A showing the cotton belt and answer the questions that follow.

MAP

a) name the:

(i) old cotton growing states marked 1 and 2,

(ii) new cotton growing states marked A and B,

b) Explain the factors which led to the decline of cotton growing in the old cotton belt.

c) Describe the factors which favored the shift of the cotton growing belt to the new areas.

d) Outline the changes which took place in the cotton belt after the decline of cotton growing.

8. Table II below shows the different types of transport used in Manhattan, New York city. Study it, and answer the questions that follow.

Table II: MEANS OF TRANSPORT USED IN MANHATTAN, NEW YORK

Means of transport Percentage Degrees
sub-way (underground trains)
train
Bus
Ferry
Car, lorry,taxi
Total
-
9
6
2
-
100
252
32
-
-
47
360

Adapted: white, R.G and H. Bourman; North America

a) (i) Complete the table above.

(ii)State the least means of transport used in Manhattan.

b) Draw a pie chart to show the relative importance of the difference types of transport.

c) Outline the factors that have led to the:

(i) Location of New York city,

(ii) Development of New York into a large city.

d) State the problems facing the inhabitants of New York City.

9. a) Draw a sketch map of British Columbia and on it, mark and name:

(i) Vancouver island

(ii) Ports: prince Rupert and Vancouver,

(iii) The warm and cold currents

(iv) The major fishing grounds

b) Describe the conditions favoring the fishing industry in the areas shown in (a)(iv) above.

c) Mention:

(i) Two types of fish caught in the area.

(ii) Two uses of fish apart from being a source of protein

d)(i) explain the problems facing the fishing industry in British Columbia.

(ii) Outline the steps being taken to solve the problems in (d)(i) above.

REGION II: THE RHINE LANDS

10. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.

"Switzerland, as in other highland areas of North west Europe, the landscape has been created by ice. Glaciers formed in mountains and flowed down hill, enlarging and widening valleys, and leaving jagged, spectacular scenery. When the ice melted, lakes were left on the valley floors."

Source: Waugh. D. the world p118

a) (i) State three glacial features mentioned in the passage.

(ii)Describe the formation of any one of the features stated in (a)(i) above.

b) Name:

(i) The region in Switzerland with glaciated land scape.

(ii) Any three economic activities taking place in the region named in (b)(i) above.

c) (i) outline the problems facing the economic activities named in (b)(ii) above

(ii) Explain the steps taken to solve the problems outlined in (c)(ii) above

11. Study table III below showing steel production in former West Germany between 1977 and 1983 and answer the questions that follow:

Table III: steel production in former West Germany ('000 tones) 1977-1983.

1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983
39,000 45,000 46,000 44,000 42,000 40,000 26,000

Source: adapted from Waugh D. Europe p68.

a) Draw a bar graph to show the information given in the table.

b) State the year when steel production was

(i) Highest,

(ii) Lowest.

c) Using the table and graph drawn, describe the pattern of steel production.

d) Using your knowledge of the iron and steel industry former West Germany, explain the factors responsible for the pattern of steel production between 1977 and 1983.

e) Name:

(i) One industrial center for iron and steel production in Germany.

(ii) Two uses of steel and iron in Germany.

12. Study figure 4. Sketch map of a polder and answer the questions that follow.

MAP

a) (i) Describe the relief of the land covered by the polder.

(ii)Explain why it was necessary to create polders in this area.

b) Describe how a polder is made.

c) Describe the various types of land use on the polder.

d) (i) Outline the problems facing the people using the polders.

(ii) State the ways in which the problems in d(i) above are being solved.

REGION III: CHINA

13. a) Draw a sketch map of china and on, mark and name one area with:

(i) high population density,

(ii) Low population density.

b) Explain the factors which have led to;

(i) high population density

(ii)low population density in the areas marked on the sketch map.

c) Describe the problems faced by the people living in the high population density area shown on the sketch map.

d) Outline the steps being taken to solve the problems of high population density.

14. "The Yangtze is one of the world's great rivers. After leaving its mountain course, it flows through the large fertile basin of Szechwan, then through a series of narrow gorges, then across a low land plain into the East China Sea. It has a long history of flooding and disaster".

Adapted from Beddis, R. the changing world (work book 3) p36.

a) Name:

(i) The mountain which forms the watershed of the Yangtze river

(ii) Two tributaries of the Yangtze river,

(iii) A port on the mouth of the Yangtze river

b) (i) In which months of the year does the Yangtze River flood?

(ii) Explain why the Yangtze River floods.

c) Outline the:

(i) Problems resulting from flooding of the Yangtze river,

(ii) Steps being taken by china to control flooding in the Yangtze valley.

d) State the importance of the Yangtze River in the development of china.

15. Study figures 5. Map of china showing the major industrial regions, and answer the questions that follow.

MAP

a) Name the:

(i) Industrial regions marked 1, 2, 3 and 4.

(ii) Industrial cities marked A, B, C and D.

(iii) Industries found in region marked 3.

b) State the factors that have:

(i) Encouraged industrial development in Eastern china

(ii) Discouraged industrial growth in western china.

c) Why is china encouraging the development the development of labour intensive industries?