1. Discuss the merits and demerits of liberalising the mass - media in Uganda.

2. 'Juvenile delinquency in Uganda today is primarily a result of parental negligence'. Discuss.

3. Assess the impact of modernised farming on the environment.

4. 'Girls who become pregnant should be discontinued from school.' Discuss.

5. What measures should be taken to bring abought peace in the great lakes region?

6. 'Justice delayed is justice denied.' Discuss.


Answer one question from this section.

7. Study the table below showing demographic characteristics of selected countries and answer the questions that follow:

Country/ classification Birth rate per 1000 population infant mortality rate per 1000 live births deaths rate per 1000 population LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH


United kingdom (UK)

United states of America (USA)





































a) State the country with the:

i) Highest birth rate,

ii) Lowest infant mortality rate,

iii) Highest overall life expectancy at birth.

b) Draw a group bar graph to represent life expectancy at birth for both females and males for the countries shown in the table.

c) Account for differences in life expectancy at birth between the developing and developed countries.

d) Outline the problems which have resulted from:

i) High birth rates in developing countries,

ii) Low birth rates in developed countries.

8. Read the passage below and answer the questions which follow, using your own words wherever possible:

Socialisation continues through life. After childhood one continues to enter new groups to attain statutes, to learn new roles and thereby to elaborate one's ways of participating in society. A freshman is socialised into the patterns of a college, an immigrant into the life of a new country, a recruit into the army, anew resident into the surburb, anew patient into a hospital ward and a bride into a life of marriage.

In some respects later socialisation is continuous with that of childhood, in other respects discontinuous. In earlier respects like in the home, at school, with the peer group and through the mass media children acquire 'the native language'. They learn to speak and write. Having developed this foundation in early socialisation, they later acquire the capacity to issue commands to an army platoon, to preach sermons or write love letters, shopping lists, legal briefs, newspaper articles or sales reports. They thus learn to use their native language in new and specialised ways consonant with the particular adult statuses they attain and expectations of their adult roles. Further, the general symbolic capacities that children begin to develop in infancy as they begin to acquire their human nature eventuate in their being able also to use special non-verbal systems. They can learn to read music or blue prints or computer print -outs or for that matter, tea leaves, smoke signals or tart of cards.

Children's symbolic capacities are not merely cognitive in nature. These capacities combine with sentiments in particular ways so that children can come to cherish people with whom they have never actually interacted. Thus the popes, presidents, prime ministers and other leaders in the sense that they represent causes and ideals to which someone is committed also represent aspects of that person's self. They are symbols of oneself (or parts of oneself) which strengthen the attachment to nation, church, political party or social movement. This ability to so utilise others as symbols does not arise for the first time in adulthood. It is essentially a development from a refinement of a capacity that first showed itself when the child was attracted to role models outside the family. The child's imagining himself or herself as police officer, heroic rescuer or star athlete are the precursors.

Other basic elements of the adult socialisation process are also similar to those in childhood. There are socialising agents who teach, serve as models and invite participation. Through their ability to offer gratifications and deprivations they induce co-operation and learning and they endeavour to prevent disruptive deviance. The persons being socialised, on their part through observation, participation and role taking, learn and internalise new expectations and develop new self - conceptions.

The continuities in socialisation from childhood to adulthood are significant because adulthood is rooted in childhood. But there is also reason to believe that childhood socialisation sets limits to what may be accomplished through adult socialisation, even though we are not yet able to define those limits with any precision. The human organism has great plasticity, but that plasticity is not infinite. For example, it would appear virtually impossible for a person brought up in a rural slum that never advanced past grade five, at age twenty five, prepare for and successfully follow a professional career. This degree of discontinuity between childhood and adult socialisation seems insurmountable.

Although certain aspects and certain kinds of adult socialisation presuppose continuity with childhood socialisation, it is equally true that adult socialisation even the ordinary course of events, is often discontinuous from that of childhood.

Although there is no doubt that adolescents are in the process of becoming more independent of their parents and consequently, are more responsive to their peers than they were at younger ages, and although their interests and values may differ from those ostensibly emphasised by the high school, it does not follow that adolescent socialisation is peer - dominated and little influenced by adult values and norms. In reviewing Coleman's study, Bennett Berger argues that most of the adolescent values and interests noted by Coleman are more accurately understood as derivative from adults. For example, High School athletics depend greatly on support by parents and local booster organisations. Further, parents are concerned about popularity and prestige.


a) Suggest an appropriate title for the passage.

b) What does the author mean by the following phrases?

i) "........they endeavour to prevent disruptive deviance." ((line 39)

ii) "The human organism has great plasticity.........." (line 46)

c) In not more than 100 words, summarise how socialisation is a continuous process.

d) Explain the meaning of the following words and phrases as used in the passage:

i) Peer group (line 09)

ii) Consonant (line 14)

iii) Symbolic capacities (line 15)

iv) Eventuate (line 16)

v) Refinement (line 27)

vi) Childhood orientation (line 34 - 35)

vii) Internalise (line 41)

viii) Precision (line 45)

ix) Responsive to their peers (lines 56 - 57)

x) Booster organisations (line 63)