1. 'The use of narcotic drugs should not be restricted.' Discuss.

2. Assess the role played by traditional healers in your community.

3. 'Lack of a national language is the major cause of disunity in Uganda.' Discuss.

4. What is the justification for including practical subjects in your education system?

5. 'Moral rehabilitation is the most sure way of curbing the aids scourge in Uganda.'

6. 'Beauty is in the eyes of the beholder.' Discuss.


Answer one question from this section.

7. Study the following information carefully and Answer the questions that follow.

An isolated island in the Indian Ocean is occupied by only three families named according to their family heads; Oum and Nyai.

By 1920, the three families had equal sizes of four members each. The orders of births of the off springs were as follows:

Family Order of birth Identification
Muo first born Second born

A: Female B:Female

Oum First born Second born C: Female P:Male
Nyai First born Second born Q: Male R:Male

The off springs above were given weights depending on their order of birth and gender classification:

Classification Weight

First born Male

Second born Male

First born Female

Second born Female





In 1940, a party was organized at which all the off springs were to get married. Only three seats, each with a capacity of four persons were available.

The culture of the island is such that no two males from one family are allowed to marry from the same family; no offspring from the same family can marry one another and polygamous marriage is not allowed. At no occasion are off springs allowed to share a seat with their parents but each young couple must share with a couple of parents after all the marriage rituals have been fulfilled. Both off springs of Muo and the first born of Nyai take alcohol.


a) Suggest possible marriages that can take place between the off springs.

b) Giving reasons for your answer, name the off springs whose choices of partners are limited.

c) Without considering the weights and drinking habits, suggest three different ways of using the three seats.

d) If parents are given a zero weight and the sum of weights was taken from each seat, determine the couple with the minimum value of weights.

e) If the habit of taking alcohol was considered at marriages such that there is no couple where both members take alcohol, mention the offspring that would be :

i) Most disadvantaged,

ii) Least disadvantaged,

In making choices.

8. Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow using your own words wherever possible.

Human being should be free to form opinions, and to express their opinions without reserve; and such the baneful consequences to the intellectual, and through that to the moral nature of man, unless this liberty is either conceded, or asserted in spite of prohibition; let us next examine whether the same reasons do not require that men should be free to act upon next examine whether the same reasons do not require that men should be free to act upon their opinions - to carry these out in their lives, without hindrance, either physical or moral, from their fellow men, so long as it is at their own risk and peril. This last proviso is of course indispensable. No one pretends that actions should be as free as opinions. On the contrary, even opinions lose their immunity when the circumstances in which they are expressed are such as to constitute their expression as positive instigation to some mischievous act. An opinion that corn - dealers are starves of the poor, or that private property is robbery, ought to be unmolested when simply circulated through the press, but may justly incur punishment when delivered orally to an excited mob assembled before the house of a corn - dealer, or when handed about among the same mob in the form of a placard. Acts of whatever kind, which without justifiable cause, do harm to others, may be and in the more important cases absolutely require to be controlled by the unfavorable sentiments and, when needful, by the active interference of mankind. The liberty of the individual must be thus far limited: he must not make himself a nuisance to other people. But if he refrains from molesting others in what concerns them, and merely acts according to his own inclination and judgment in things which concern himself, the same reasons which show that opinion should judgment in things which concern himself, the same reasons which show that opinion should be free, prove also that he should be allowed, without molestation, to carry his opinions into practice at his own closet. That mankind are not infallible; that their truths, for the most part, are only half truths; that unity of opinion, unless resulting from the fullest and freest comparison of opposite opinions, is not desirable and diversity not an evil, but a good until mankind are much more capable than at present of recognizing all sides of the truth, are principles applicable to men's modes off action, not less than to their opinions. As it is useful that while mankind is imperfect there should be different modes of life should be proved practically, when anyone thinks fit to try them. It is desirable, in short, that in things which do not primarily concern others individuality should assert itself. Where not the person's own character, but the traditions or customs of other people, are the rule of conduct, there is wanting one of the principal ingredients of human happiness, and quite the chief ingredient of individual and social progress.

In maintaining this principle, the greatest difficulty to be encountered does not lie in the appreciation of means towards an acknowledged end, but in the difference of persons in general to the end itself. If it were felt that the free development of individuality is one of the leading essentials of well - being; that it is not only a coordinate element with all that is designated by the terms civilization, instruction, education, culture, but is itself a necessary part and condition of all those things; there would be no danger that liberty should be undervalued, and the adjustment of the boundaries between it and social control would present no extraordinary difficulty. But the evil that individual spontaneity is hardly recognized by the common modes of thinking as having any intrinsic worth, or deserving any regard on its own account.

The majority, being satisfied with the ways of mankind as they now are (for it is they who make them what they are), cannot comprehend why those ways should not be good enough for everybody; and what is more, spontaneity forms no part of the ideal of the majority of moral and social reformers, but is rather looked on with jealousy, as a troublesome and perhaps rebellious obstruction to the general acceptance of what these reformers, in their own judgment, think would be best for mankind. Few persons, out of Germany, even comprehend the meaning of the doctrine which Wilhelm Von Humboldt, so eminent both as a savant and as a politician, made the text of a treatise - that "the end of man, or that which is prescribed by the eternal or immutable dictates of reason and not suggested by vague and transient desires, is the highest and most harmonious development of his powers to a complete and consistent whole," that, therefore, the object "towards which every human being must ceaselessly direct his efforts, and on which especially those who design to influence their fellowmen must ever keep their eyes, is the individually of power and development," that for this there are two requistes."Freedom and variety of situations", which combine themselves in "originality."

Little, however, as people are accustomed to a doctrine like that of von Humboldt, and surprising as it may be to them to find so high a value attached to individually, the question, one must nevertheless think, can only be one of degree. No one's idea of excellence in conduct is that people should do absolutely nothing but copy one another. No one would assert that people ought not to put into their mode of life, and into the conduct of their concerns, any impress whatever of their own judgment, or of their own individual character. On the other hand, it would be absurd to pretend that people ought to live as if nothing whatever had been known in the world before they came into it; as if experience had as yet done nothing towards showing that one mode of existence. But it is the privilege and proper condition of a human being, arrived at the maturity of his faculties, to use and interpret experience in his own way. It is for him to find out what part of recorded experience in his own way. It is for him to find out what part of recorded experience properly applicable to his own circumstances and character. The traditions and customs of other people are to a certain extent, evidence of what their experience has taught them; presumptive evidence and as such, have a claim to his deference: but in the first place, their interpretation of experience may be correct, but unsuitable to him. Customs are made for customary circumstances and customary characters; and his circumstances or his character may be uncustomary. Thirdly, though the customs be both good as customs, and suitable to him, yet conform to custom merely as custom does not educate or develop in him any of the qualities which are the distinctive endowment of a human being. The human faculties of perception, judgment, discriminative feeling, mental activity, and even moral preference, are exercised only in making a choice. He who does anything because it is the custom makes no choice. He gains no practice either in discerning or in desiring what is best. The mental and moral, like the muscular powers, are improved only by being used. The faculties are called into no exercise by doing a thing merely because others do it, no more than by believing a thing only because others believe it. If the grounds of an opinion are not conclusive to the person's own reason, his reason cannot be strengthened, but is likely to be weakened, by his adopting it, and if the inducements to an act are not such as are consentaneous to his own feelings and character, (where affection, or the rights of others, are not concerned), it is so much done towards rendering his feelings and character inert and torpid, instead of active and energetic.

He who lets the world, or his own portion of it, choose his plan of life for him has no need of any other faculty than the ape like one of imitation. He who chooses his plan for himself employs all his faculties. He must use observation to see, reasoning and judgment to foresee, activity to gather materials for decision, discrimination to decide and when he has decided, firmness and self control to hold to his deliberate decision. And these qualities he requires and exercises exactly in proportion as the part of his conduct which he determines according to his own judgment and feelings is a large one. Supposing it were possible to get houses built, corn grown, battles fought cases tried and even churches erected and prayers said by machinery by automatons in human form, it would be a considerable loss to exchange "for these automatons even the men and women who at present inhabit the more civilized parts of the world and who assuredly are but starved specimens of what nature can and will produce. Human nature is not a medicine to be built after a model, and set to do exactly the work prescribed for it, but a tree which requires growing and developing itself on all sides according to the tendency of the inward forces which make it a living thing.


a) I) what reasons does the writer give for men not to be free to act upon their opinions?

ii) According to the passage, when is an element of individuality allowed?

b) In not more than 100 words, summarize the problems of individuality according to the writer.

c) I) according to the passage, what human faculties are involved in making a choice?

ii)What does the author mean by: " he who lets the world, or his own portion of it choose his plan of life for him has no need of any other faculty than the ape - like one of imitation"? (Lines 91 - 92)

d) Explain the meanings of the following words and phrases as used in the passage:

i. Unmolested (line 11)

ii. Mankind are not infallible (line 21)

iii. Principal ingredients of human happiness (line 32)

iv. Immutable dictates (line 52)

v. Doctrine (line 60)

vi. Presumptive evidence (line 75)

vii. Distinctive endowment of a human being (line 81)

viii. Consentaneous (line 89)

ix. Automatons (line 100)

x. Inward forces (line 105)