For sections in section a, write an essay of between 500 and 800 words.


1. What have coups d'état achieved in your country?

2. What considerations do you have to take into account when choosing a career?


3. Are you for or against zoos?

4. Should tobacco smoking be banned?


5. What are good manners? Are they important?

6. Music is purely for relaxation. Do you agree?


Answer one question from this section.

7. Study the following information very carefully and then answer the questions which follow.

The government of Zukaland is deeply concerned about the country's declining economy and rising unemployment. A considerable number of its citizens had been working abroad in catering and the hotel industry, but have had been had their work permit withdrawn because of high unemployment in the countries where they had been expatriates. They are now laid off and are unlikely to find employment in the present conditions.

Much of the country's trade depends on the growing of tropical fruits, but almost 90% of the plantations in the northwest coastal area are virtually exhausted. The owners plan to abandon these and develop new plantations in the North and East.

The national airline is in serious financial difficulties and is calling for very substantial support from the government, which will find this almost impossible without a massive increase in revenue.

A survey has shown that the country is ideally suited for the development of tourism. The climate is excellent all year and excellent beaches exist on the northwest coast, also near the capital' which is on the south coast.

The only airport is close to the capital and all flights in and out must pass over the beaches adjacent to the capital. This has brought violent complaints from the thousands of citizens who regard these beaches as their playground.

A large foreign tour company (A) has offered to build hotels if a suitable site can be founded. It wishes to cater for wealthy tourists who pay high charges for high standards of accommodation and amenities.

A second large tour company (B) sees a great opportunity to develop cheaper holiday centre's based on simple beach houses made by local people from locally available materials. The company needs a large area with access to good beaches.

Company (A) plans accommodation for 500 tourists: company (B) accommodation for 1500 probably operate at about 1500 Zukas. Initially the national airline will have a monopoly but, if the venture is successful, other airlines may join in.

The fruit companies are pressing government for grants or loans to start new plantations over the next five years.

The tour companies are pressing government to approve their plans so that an immediate start can be made on building and the recruiting of staff. They are stressing that acceptance of their plans could substantially increase the per capita income of the country.

a) In about 100 words, outline the economic problems facing the government of Zukaland.

b) Do you consider that the government should accept the offers of only one of the tour companies or of both? Give your reasons.

c) If it is decided to develop tourism, where would company (A) find the most suitable area for this development? Why?

d) Similarly, which area would be the best choice for company (B)?

e) What benefits to the country are likely to result from government spending on providing such facilities as roads, water and electricity for the tourist industry?

f) Several concerns are pressing the government for attention. What considerations should influence the government in assessing priorities?

8. Read carefully the following passage and then answer the questions which follow, using your own words wherever possible.

We learn from science that multicellular organisms such as mean are higher in the biological scale than unicellular organisms such as amoeba. It is argued by analogy that the agglomeration of men which forms the nation is of a higher order than the individual. It is the individual therefore that must be sacrificed in the interests of the nation. This is merely a modern scientific rendering of the much older analogy used by Hobbes, who pictured society as a greater man whose activities are controlled by a brain in the form is an utterly misleading one. Races and nations are not integrated wholes governed by a specialized brain and central nervous system, but are amorphous agglomerations of individuals. We do not look upon a forest as being on a higher evolutionary level than its trees and similarly there is no reason to regard a crowd of men as being superior to the individuals of which it is composed. The truth is exactly the reverse of this. A study of crowd psychology shows clearly that the behavior of men in the mass is inferior to that of the individuals of which it is made up. Because they are freed from all sense of personal responsibility the men and women who form a crowd are dominated almost entirely by blind and instinctive fears, rapidly changing moods and sudden impulses. They are unable to maintain any distant aim in view but are swayed only by the passions of the moment. A crowd therefore has a strong resemblance to those lower forms of life which respond automatically to every passing stimulus and keep no more distant aim in view. What is true of a crowd is true also to a great extent of that larger collection of individuals forming a nation, for a nation is a loose and tenuous organization, the structure of which readily disintegrates into warring factions and parties. Ouespensky's has said, 'it is the individual man who creates. All inventions, discoveries, improvements, all technical progress, the progress of science, art, architecture and engineering, all philosophical systems, all religious teachings, all these are the results of individual men. The destruction of the results of this activity, their distortion, annihilation, obliteration from the face of the earth, this is the activity of human masses.'

The law of the crowd and of that greater crowd, the nation, is the law of the jungle, the subjugation of the weaker by the stronger. Only when the crowd breaks up into smaller groups are the individuals who composed it able to realize the true nature of the crimes they have previously committed, and it is this interplay between small groups of men which exercises a moderating action on the behavior of nations. Freedom of thought, freedom of thought, freedom of the press and the free exchange of ideas are therefore necessary to national health, and one of the first and most necessary acts of a dictator is to destroy every form of group and association in which free opinions can be expressed. Secret police must ensure that men are able to meet together in fellowship to discuss politics or national affairs.

(Adapted from meaning and purpose by Kenneth walker)

Answer the following questions.

a) Explain, in not more than 100 words, Ouespensky's statement (line 20 - 24)

b) What, according to the last paragraph, are the consequences of 'the law of the crowd' being accepted as 'the law of the jungle'?

c) Give the meaning of the following words in the context of the passage:

i. Agglomeration (line 2)

ii. Analogy (line 2)

iii. Specialized (line 8)

iv. Amorphous (line 8)

v. Tenuous (line 19)

vi. Subjugation (line 26)

vii. Interplay (line 28).

d) Explain the meaning of the following phrases, as used in the passage:

i. Integrated wholes (lines 8 - 9)

ii. On a higher evolutionary level (line 9)

iii. Crowd psychology (line 11)

iv. Every passing stimulus (line 17)

v. Philosophical systems (line 22)

vi. Moderation action (line 28)