PAPER 1

THEORY

PART A

Answer all the questions in this part. For question 1, write the letter corresponding to the best answer. For question 2 to 5, write all answers in the spaces provided.

1. a) the relationship between a cow and the micro organisms in its rumen can best be described as

A. parasitism

B. symbiosis

C. saprophytism

D. commensalism

b) Which one of the following is not a variable input in farming?

A. Fertilizers

B. Feeds

C. Land

D. Labour

c) Which one of the following least affects the total pore space in a soil?

A. Soil structure

B. Soil organic matter

C. Soil texture

D. Soil pH

d) Which of the following parts of a tractor enables it to turn in a narrow space when ploughing?

A. Front wheels.

B. Differential

C. Steering wheel

D. Clutch

2. Figure 1 shows the reproductive system of a farm animal.

a) (i) Name the parts labeled A, B, C and D.

A

B

C

D

(ii) State one function of part C.

b) Give three reasons why part C may be removed from a farm animal.

i) ..........................................................................

ii) ..........................................................................

iii) ...........................................................................

3. Describe four desirable crop characteristics to be considered when selecting a crop variety to grow.

i) ....................................................

ii) ...................................................

iii) .......................................................

iv) ........................................................

4. Outline four characteristics that affect demand for a farm commodity

i) .......................................................

ii) ......................................................

iii) ..........................................................

iv) ............................................................

5. State four advantages of using animal power in farm operations.

i) .............................................................

ii) .............................................................

iii) ................................................................

iv) ....................................................................

PART B

Answer four questions from this part including at least one question from each section.

SECTION I

MECHANISATION AND FARM MANAGEMENT

6. a) Outline factors that determine a farmer's choice of tools and equipment to buy for use on a farm.

b) Explain how you would maintain farm tools and equipment in a good working condition.

7. a) Suggest what financial institutions must do to ensure that farmers use credit properly.

b) Explain how farmers should guard against risks and uncertainties to ensure profitable production.

8. a) Outline the uses of fences on a farm.

b) Describe each of the following methods of preserving fencing posts.

i) Hot and cold soaking.

ii) Sap displacement.

SECTION II

CROP PRODUCTION

9. a) Outline the types of damage caused by storage pests.

b) Explain the ways in which good tillage contributions to pest control in crop production.

10. a) Outline the benefits of vegetable production.

b) Explain why each of the following practices is important in tomato growing.

(i) Pruning

(ii) Staking

11. a) What is the importance of growing pastures?

b) How can a farmer improve the productivity of a pasture?

SECTION III

ANIMAL PRODUCTION

12. a) Describe the procedure to be followed when artificially inseminating cow.

b) Outline the advantages of artificial insemination.

13. a) Describe the features which distinguish good layers from bad ones.

b) How would one control vices in birds kept under the deep litter system?

14. a) Describe how milk is prepared for marketing on a farm.

b) How can a high quality of milk be maintained?

PAPER 2

PRACTICAL

1. You are provided with soil samples E and F. label the two measuring cylinders provided. E and F. place a small piece of cotton wool at the bottom of each of the funnels provided and place the funnels onto the labeled measuring cylinders. Measure 40 cm3 of soil sample E and pour it into the funnel placed on measuring cylinder E. repeat the procedure with soil sample F. add 100 cm3 of water, poured at once to each soil sample in the funnels.

a) Record the volume of water that goes through each soil sample after 5 minutes, in the table below. Complete the table by calculating the volume of water retained by each soil sample.

Soil sample

Volume of water added (cm3)

Volume of water that goes through the soil (cm3)

Volume of water retained by the soil (cm3)

E

100

F

100

b) State the soil property being investigated in the experiment.

c) From the results of your experiment state with reasons, which of the two soil samples is more suitable for crop production.

(i) Soil sample

(ii) Reasons

d) How would you improve on the soil you consider less suitable for crop growth?

2. Specimen G1, G2, G3, G4 and G5 are materials from a sugar cane crop.

a) Giving a reason in each case, comment on the suitability of each specimen for planting.

G1

G2

G3

G4

G5

b) Identify one of the specimens that could be improved for planting and suggest how it could be improved.

(i) Specimen

(ii) Improvement

c) Describe how you would plant the specimen in (b), after improvement.

3. You are provided with specimen J1, J2, J3, J4, J5 and J6 which are parts of a tractor.

a) Identify the specimens and give one function of each in the table provided.

Specimen

Identity

Function

J1

J2

J3

J4

J5

J6

b) Give one condition that would require the use of a fresh supply of specimen J3

c) (i) In which type of engine does specimen J6 belong?

(ii) How would you maintain specimen J6 in good working condition?

4. You are provided with specimen K, L and M.

a) Identify specimen K and state its use.

i) Identity

ii) Use

b) (i) Place specimen L into the hole on specimen K and switch on the light. Look through L and record your observation.

Observation.............................................................................................................

(ii) Repeat the procedure in (b) (i) with specimen M.

Observation............................................................................................................

c) Basing on your observation in (b) (i) and (b) (ii), what conclusion can you draw about the suitability of specimens L and M for hatching?

(i) Conclusion on L.

.............................................................................................

Reason

.............................................................................................

(ii) Conclusion on M

...................................................................................

Reason

...............................................................................................

d) State five considerations you would make when selecting the specimen for hatching.

5. Specimen Q1, Q2, Q3, Q5 and Q6 are used in the milking process.

a) Identity each specimen.

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q4

b) Describe how each specimen is used in milking.

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5