PAPER 1

THEORY

PART A

Answer all the questions in this part, for questions 1; write the letter corresponding to the best answer. For questions 2 to 5, write all answer in the spaces provided.

1. a) Which one of the following best describe cross breeding?

A. Line breeding

B. Inbreeding

C. Hybridization

D. Upgrading

b) Which one the following is true about the induction stroke on a 4 stroke cycle engine?

A. Piston moves downwards and both valves are closed.

B. Piston moves upwards and the outlets valve is opened.

C. Piston moves downwards and inlet valve is opened.

D. Piston moves upwards and both valves are closed.

c) The difference between total income and total variable costs is called

A. Net profit

B. Net capital

C. Gross profit

D. Gross margin

d) A hard pan in the soil profile refers to

A. A layer of rock below the soil surface

B. An impermeable layer below the soil surface

C. An impermeable layer above the bedrock

D. An impermeable layer at the soil surface.

2. Suggest five advantages of mulching a garden.

3. Give four ways of ensuring the effectiveness of dipping cattle.

4. State four functions of oil an engine.

5. Give five items you would include in a diary record.

PART B

Answer four questions including at least one section. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

SECTION I

MECHANISATION AND FARM MANAGEMENT.

6. a) Describe the characteristics of a good cattle dip.

b) Explain the limitations of using a cattle dip.

7. a) Outline the methods of increasing the wheel grip of a tractor.

b) How can a tractor operator ensure that the tractor is in good working condition before starting the day's work?

c) What are limitations of using a tractor?

8. a) What is meant by opportunity cost?

b) A farmer has 2 hectares of land on which to grow cotton or maize. In growing cotton, the following costs are involved:

Ploughing 50,000/=

Seeds 5,000/=

Weeding 70,000/=

Pesticides 20,000/=

Picking 10,000/=

Transport 5,000/=

Fixed costs 30,000/=

The expected yield is 600 kg, and the price is 350/= per kilogram. In the case of maize, the following costs are involved:

Ploughing 50,000/=

Seeds 20,000/=

Weeding 30,000/=

Pesticide 10,000/=

Shelling 5,000/=

Transport 10,000/=

Fixed costs 30,000/=

The expected yield is 1600 kg and the price is 250/= per kilogram

Calculate the:

(i) total variable costs for:

- cotton

- maize

(ii) gross margin for:

- cotton

- maize

c) Giving a reason, suggest which of the two crops the farmer should grow.

d) Outline other factors that may influence the farmer's choice of which of the two crops to grow.

SECTION II

CROP PRODUCTION

9. a) Explain the factors that influence soil formation.

b) Describe the cultural methods that can be used to conserve soil and water

10. a) Describe how you would carry out a germination test for a given seed lot.

b) How can seed dormancy be broken?

11. a) Using illustrations, describe one method of treating compost material from one month after making the compost heap up to the time the manure is already for use.

b) Explain the ways in which organic matter contributes to soil productivity.

SECTION III

ANIMAL PRODUCTION

12. a) What are the signs of pregnancy in a cow?

b) How can one tell that a cow is about to calve?

13. a) Outline the characteristics of nomadic pastoralist.

b) Suggest how nomadic pastoralist could be transformed into modern livestock farming.

14. a) Describe the conditions that are necessary for the successful incubation of eggs.

b) State the advantages and disadvantages of artificial incubation of eggs.

PAPER 2

PRACTICAL

Each candidate should be provided with the following"

Tape worm, labelled A.

Liver fluke, labelled B.

Brown ear tick, labelled C.

Hand lens.

Freshly collected poultry manure, labelled D.

Well prepared compost manure, labelled E.

Freshly collected cow dung, labelled F.

Spark plug, labelled J.

Crank shaft, labelled K.

Sprayer nozzle, labelled L.

Radiator fins on a radiator, labelled M.

Air filter, labelled N.

Smothering plane, labelled P1.

Claw hammer, labelled P2.

Sand paper, labelled P3.

Ball pane hammer, labelled P4.

Ripping saw, labelled P5.

Tenon saw, labelled P6.

A whole pineapple plant labelled R, with its parts labelled thus

Crown, labelled R1.

Crown slip, labelled R2

Slip, labelled R3

Sucker (basal), labelled R4

Fruit, labelled R5.

Roots, labelled R6

Pineapple meal bug (Dysimicoccus brevipes), labelled Y.

1. Specimen A, B and C are livestock parasites. Using a hand less, observe them and answer the following questions.

a) Classify the specimens according to their location on the animal.

b) Give one effect of each specimen on the animal it attacks.

A..........................................................

B...........................................................

C...........................................................

c) Using observable features, describe how each specimen is adapted to its parasitic life.

A.............................................................

B.............................................................

C..................................................................

d) Give one control method for each specimen

A..................................................................

B...................................................................

C..................................................................

2. Specimen D, E and F may be used as manure.

a) State the effect of applying each specimen on a crop.

D....................................................................

E.......................................................................

F.......................................................................

b) Which of the specimen may need improvement to ensure proper crop growth?

c) Suggest how the specimen named in (b) may be improved.

3. A

4. Specimen P1 to P6 are tools used in a carpentry work on a farm.

a) Identify the specimens.

P1.......................................................................................................................................

P2....................................................................................................................................

P3...................................................................................................................................

P4..............................................................................................................................

P5....................................................................................................................................

P6......................................................................................................................................

b) Describe how you would use each of the specimens P1 to P 6 to construct a nesting box. Give a reason for the choice of the specimens used at each stage of the construction.

c) Give two ways of preventing loss of tools on a farm.

5. You are provided with specimen R which is a crop plant.

a) Observe the specimen and name the parts labelled R1, R2, R3, R4, R5 and R6.

R1...........................................................................................................................

R2..........................................................................................................................

R3.........................................................................................................................

R4..............................................................................................................................

R5...................................................................................................................................

R6........................................................................................................................................

b) (i) Give a common use of parts R1, R2, R3 and R4 to a farmer.

(ii) Which part is the most efficient for the use stated in (b) (i)? Give a reason.

c) Specimen Y attacks specimen R.

(I) Identify specimen Y

(II) Give three possible locations on specimen R where specimen Y can be found.

d) What damage does specimen Y cause on specimen R?

e) Suggest two ways of controlling specimen Y.