PAPER 1

THEORY

PART A

Answer all the questions in this part. for 1 circle the letter corresponding to the best answer. For 2 to 5 write all answers in the spaces provided. You are advised not to spend more than 30 minutes on this part.

1. a) The soil which has more hydrogen ions than hydroxyl ions is

A. neutral

B. alkaline

C. acidic

D. rich in humus

b) A dip stick is used to determine the

A. concentration of acaricide in a dip tank

B. oil level in the sump

C. level of electrolyte

D. amount of fuel in the tank

c) Digestion of protein in a ruminant begins in the

A. rumen

B. duodenum

C. small intestine

D. abomasums

d) Which one of the following is a notifiable disease?

A. Foot and mouth disease

B. Bloat

C. Calf pneumonia

D. Brucellosis

2. a) Suggest factors you would consider when deciding on the location of a farm building.

b) Give four reasons for the importance of a farm storage structure.

3. a) State the difference between risks and uncertainties.

b) Give four examples of uncertainties a farmer may face during production.

c) Suggest two measures a farmer may take to guard against uncertainties.

4. Give five factors that influence the choice of pasture species to be planted.

5. Suggest four conditions that favour ox - plough cultivation.

PART B

Answer four questions including at least one from each section, write all your answers in the answer booklet provided.

SECTION I

MECHANISATION AND FARM MANAGEMENT

6. a) With the help of a diagram describe how the qil - bath type air cleaner function.

b) How would you maintain the oil bath type air cleaner.

7. a) What is a balance sheet?

b) How does a balance sheet differ from a profit and loss account?

c) Using information below prepare a balance sheet for oryem's mixed farm as at 31 Dec. 1997

Value of implements 850,000

Feeds in the store 150,000

Bank overdraft 400,000

Value of crops 245,000

Cash in the bank 450,000

Depreciation 85,000

Debt payable 110,000

Livestock 462,000

Prepaid expenses 50,000

Debt receivable 190,000

d) State the advantages of preparing a balance sheet.

8. a) Explain the factors that bring about fluctuation in the prices of agricultural products.

b) Describe the measures that could be taken to reduce the effects of fluctuation in the prices of agricultural products.

SECTION II

CROP PRODUCTION

9. a) Outline the basic climatic and soil requirements for growing Arabic coffee.'

b) Outline the advantages of propagating coffee by vegetative means.

c) State the benefits of pruning coffee.

10. a) State the benefits of good drainage.

b) Describe an experiment you would perform to compare the rates of drainage in two soil samples.

11. a) State the characteristics that a good cover crop should have.

b) (i) What factors should be considered when planning a crop rotation?

(ii) Given the following: maize, cassava, groundnuts and three plots, design a three year crop rotation

SECTION III

ANIMAL PRODUCTION

12. a) Draw and label a cross section of cattle dip.

b) State the precautions that should be taken before taking animals to dip.

c) What factors may reduce the effectiveness of dipping animals.

13. a) Describe the abnormalities that may occur in eggs during their formation.

b) State and explain the measures that a farmer could take in order to produce quality eggs.

14. a) What factors affect milk composition?

b) Suggest ways by which high quality milk be maintained in a farm.

PAPER 2

Each candidate should be provided with the following:

Snail labelled A

Seeds of panicum maximum (guinea grass) labelled B1

Hyperthermia spp seeds (jaragua or thardy grass) labelled B2

Seeds of bruccharia sigrial grass labelled B3

Branding iron labelled C1

Elastrator labelled C2

Clinical thermometer C3

Nose ring C4

Standard post 15 cm diameter and treated labelled D1

Dropper 5cm - 8cm diameter and treated labelled D2

U nails labelled D3

Cotton Steiner/ antestia bug labelled F

Termite labelled G

Bean bruchid labelled H

Beef/ meat labelled E

1. a) You have been provided with specimen A. observe the specimen and identify it.

Identify of specimen A.....................................................................................................

b) Which livestock parasite is associated with specimen A?

c) In which organ of the host animal is the parasite named in (b) above found?

d) What are the observable signs of infestation by this parasite on the host?

e) Outline the measure than can be taken to control the parasite named in (b) above.

2. a) Specimen B1, B2 and B3 are seeds of pasture grass. Name the grasses from which these seeds were obtained.

B1 .............................................................................................................................................

B2 ............................................................................................................................................

B3 ..............................................................................................................................................

b) What procedure would you follow to establish a pasture from specimens B1, B2 and B3?

c) Give two ways by which the quality of pastures established from the specimens can be improved.

3. a) you are provided with specimens C1, C2 , C3 and C4. observe the specimens and identify them.

C1.......................................................................................................................................

C2.......................................................................................................................................

C3.......................................................................................................................................

C4......................................................................................................................................

b) State the use of each of the specimens.

C1.......................................................................................................................................

C2........................................................................................................................................

C3.......................................................................................................................................

C4......................................................................................................................................

c) On the diagram below, mark with an X three positions suitable for the use of C1.

IMAGE

d) Why should C2 be used only on the parts marked in (c) above?

e) How is specimen C3 used on the animal?

4. Specimen D1, D2 and D3 are components of a farm structure.

a) Give the identity of the specimens.

D1...................................................................................................................................

D2....................................................................................................................................

D3....................................................................................................................................

b) Name the farm structure in which they are used.

c) State four of the farm structure named in (b) above.

d) Suggest a suitable spacing of D2 in the structure named in (b) above.

e) State the purpose for which specimen D3 is used in the structure named in (b) above.

f) State two ways of ensuring the durability of the farm structure mentioned in (b)

5. You are provided with specimens F, G, H and I which are crop pests.

a) Identify the pests

F ....................................................................................................................................

G ...................................................................................................................................

H ...................................................................................................................................

I ....................................................................................................................................

b) What damage does each pest cause on the crop it attacks?

F ...................................................................................................................................

G ..................................................................................................................................

H ...................................................................................................................................

I ......................................................................................................................................

c) For each pest give one measure a farmer can take to control it.

F ......................................................................................................................................

G .....................................................................................................................................

H ......................................................................................................................................

I ........................................................................................................................................

6. a) List the nutrients provided by specimen E.

b) State the factors that can make specimen E unsuitable for human consumption.

c) Name three by products of specimen E and state one use of each.