PAPER 1

THEORY

PART A

Answer all the questions in this part, for question 1 circle the letter corresponding to the best answer. For questions 2 to 5 write all the answers in the space provided. You are advised not to spend more than 30 minutes on this part.

1. a) The differential lock mechanism in the tractor

A. enables the tractor to brake efficiency

B. allows the tractor to turn in narrow space

C. protects the tractor from being stolen

D. Connects the driving shaft to the rear wheels.

b) The rural farmers' scheme is an example of a

A. soft loan

B. character loan

C. short term loan

D. medium term loan

c) Artificial insemination is often less successful with indigenous cattle because

A. indigenous cows have short oestrus cycles

B. indigenous cows show irregular oestrus cycles

C. there are very few artificial inseminators in villages

D. Heat signs are difficult to detect in indigenous cows.

d) Which one of the following is a sign of stomach worm infestation in calves?

A. Rough skin coat

B. Increased appetite

C. Swollen lymph nodes

D. Constipation

2. a) State the importance of soil aeration.

b) The table below shows the results of an experiment carried out to determine the percentage of air in three types of soil. Study it and answer the questions that follow.

Type of soil %air bv volume

X 46

Y 25

Z 10

i) which of these types X, Y, Z would

Drain best,

....................................................................................................................................................

Be most suitable for crop answer in (i) above?

.....................................................................................................................................................

ii) Give reasons for your answer in (i) above.

iii) Suggest the identities of soil types:

X ...................................................................................................................................................

Y ..................................................................................................................................................

Z .................................................................................................................................................

3. a) State the difference between concrete and motor used in construction work on a farm.

b) Give five advantages of using wood as a consumption work on a farm.

i) .......................................................................................................................................................

ii) ......................................................................................................................................................

iii) .......................................................................................................................................................

iv) ......................................................................................................................................................

4. a) List three kinds of damage that may occur on a hide or skin during the killing and flaying of an animal.

i) .....................................................................................................................................................

ii) .....................................................................................................................................................

iii) ......................................................................................................................................................

b) Mention three operations which should be carried out on a hide or skin after flaying to ensure high quality of the hide or skin.

i) ............................................................................................................................................

ii) ............................................................................................................................................

iii) ............................................................................................................................................

iv) ...........................................................................................................................................

5. Figure 1 below shows an ox - plough. Study the diagram and answer the questions that follow.

IMAGE

a) Name the parts labelled (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) and state their functions:

Part function

i) .......................................................................................................................................................

ii) ......................................................................................................................................................

iii) ......................................................................................................................................................

iv) ......................................................................................................................................................

b) Indicate with dotted lines on the diagram the position of the frog. State the function of the frog.

c) Give two reasons why the use of this implement is not widespread.

i) ......................................................................................................................................................

ii) ......................................................................................................................................................

PART B

Answer four questions including at least one from each section.

Write all your answers in the answer booklet provided.

SECTION I

MECHANISATION AND FARM MANAGEMENT

6. a) Explain why most farm tractor engines are of the diesel type.

b) Describe how you would prepare a tractor for the day's field work.

7. a) Giving examples in each case identify the uncertainties farmers face in production and marketing of their produce.

b) Explain the measures you would advise a tamer to take to guard against risks and uncertainties.

8. a) Describe how population increase can affect agricultural production.

b) What other problems are associated with population increase?

SECTION II

CROP PRODUCTION

9. a) What is soil sampling?

b) Why is it necessary for a farmer to carry out soil sampling on his/her farm?

c) Describe the procedure of obtaining a soil sample from a field.

10. Discuss the factors you would consider when choosing a crop to grow in an area.

11. Describe how you would raise a crop of maize from seedbed preparation to when the plants are at knee-height.

SECTION III

ANIMAL PRODUCTION

12. a) State the characteristics of a good quality egg.

b) Describe the management practices that a poultry farmer should carry out to produces good quality eggs.

13. a) name four livestock diseases, in each case, caused by

i) Bacteria

ii) Protozoa

iii) Viruses

b) Outline the various ways in which livestock diseases cause economic losses to a farmer.

14. a) State the precautions a farmer should take before introducing Friesian diary cows on the farm.

b) Suggest the qualities that a good stockman should have.

PAPER 2

PRACTICAL

1. You are provided with specimen O, which is a plant part that has been attached by a pest. Observe it carefully and answer the following questions:

a) Identity specimen O.

b) Describe the damage done to the specimen as you have observed.

c) What is the economic importance of the damage caused by the pest?

d) Suggest a pest that could have caused the damage you have observed on the specimen.

e) State two methods of control for the pest suggested in (d) above.

f) Examine specimen P, Q and R which are diseased portions of crop plants. Fill in the table below.

Specimen Name of disease Observable signs Means of spread One control method
P
Q
R

2. You are provided with specimens S and T which are soil samples. Carry out the following experiments on the specimens and answer the questions that follow.

a) Take a small sample sample of each specimen at a time moistens with a bit of water and rub between your thumb and first finger. Record your observation.

b) (i) Weigh out 40g of each sample and place in separate funnels continuing filter pare. (Set up your experiment as shown in the diagram below.

IMAGE

To each sample add 50cm3 of water at the same time. Leave the experiment to stand for 15 minutes, then measure and record the volume of water collected in each case, in the table below.
Soil sample Weight of soil (g) Amount of water (cm3) Amount of water collected after 15 min
S 40 50
T 40 50

ii) What soil properties are being investigated?

iii) Suggest the identity of each of the soil samples.

S ......................................................................................................................................................

T .....................................................................................................................................................

c) (i) Which of the soil samples would be easy to work?

(ii) Give reasons for your answer in (c)(i) above.

3. a) Observe and identify specimen U

Identity ................................................................................................................................................

b) What is the function of this specimen in a tractor?

c) Which observed features makes specimen U to perform in function efficient.

d) How would you ensure that specimen U works efficiency?

4. a) Observe and identify specimens G and H

Specimen G .......................................................................................................................................

Specimen H .......................................................................................................................................

b) State three types of damages each, that specimens G and H cause on farm animals.

Specimen G

...............................................................................................................................................................

Specimen H

................................................................................................................................................................

c) Give two methods of controlling each of the specimens G and H.

Specimen G

..................................................................................................................................................................

Specimen H

..................................................................................................................................................................

5. You are provided with specimens I, J which are common weeds. Observe them and answer the following questions

a) Identify each specimen

I .........................................................................................................................................................

J .........................................................................................................................................................

b) What observable features make these weeds difficult to control.

c) Suggest, with reasons, two ways by which these weeds could be effectively controlled.

6. Specimen K is an important animal product.

a) Name four essential nutrients it supplies in the human diet.

b) Carry out a simple, suitable experiment on a sample of specimen K to determine its suitability for human consumption. Record the experiment, your observations and conclusion below:

Experiment: ............................................................................................................................

Observation: ...........................................................................................................................

Conclusion: .............................................................................................................................

c) State the precautions you would take on the farm to ensure the production of good quality specimen K.