For question in section a, write an essay of between 500 and 800 words.


1. 'For God and my Country.' Comment on this Ugandan national motto in terms of its meaning and implications.

2. How do you account for the movement of people from rural areas to the towns in your country? Is this movement, in your view, one which should be encouraged?


3. Which is the more important, to cure disease or to prevent it?

4. Suggest practicable ways in which the natural resources of Uganda could be used more effectively than they are at present.


5. 'Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man and writing an exact man.' (Francis Bacon, 1561 - 1626). Do you agree?

6. Should efforts be made to preserve traditional forms of dress in Uganda? Give reasons for your answer.


7. Study the following information very carefully, and then answer the questions which follow.

A gang of guerrilla fighters, five in number, went to the bush in Zukaland from January to May. Their identities are unknown and therefore the police refer to them as A, B, C, D and E. they have been active in five towns, Zula, Mako, Tera, Pala and Wuka. Each member of the gang moves from one of these towns to another every month but never spends more than one month in the same town. In any one month, three of the gang appears to remain in hiding; one is believed to observe the habits and movements of the next victim, ant the remaining guerrilla fighter carries out the kidnapping of a victim, using the information gathered by a colleague in the previous month. The police are certain that it is the leader of the gang who carries out the kidnapping. The victims are always high ranking officers in the armed forces or government ministers.

The chief of staff was kidnapped in January in tera. The inspector general of the police force was kidnapped in February; the air force commander in March; the minister of internal affairs in April and the minister of defense in may. Because the guerrilla fighters have never been identified, existing police records are of no help. However, the following information is believed to be accurate.

D was in tera in April.

C was in wuka in January.

A was replaced by C in Tera in March.

E replaced D in Wuka in April.

C replaced E in Pala in April.

E was in Mako in January and was replaced there by C

In January, D was in Zula, where he was replaced by E.

On three occasions, B replaced C.

a) Set our the various items of information available in the form of a table, from which you may easily follow the movements of the guerrilla fighters. There will be a number of spaces in the table which you have to fill in by deduction in order to answer the questions?

b) (i) Which of the five guerrilla fighters is the leader?

(ii) Explain in detail the reasoning which leads to this conclusion.

c) (i) In which town was the minister of internal affairs kidnapped?

(ii) Which guerrilla fighter was responsible for gathering information in preparation for this particular kidnapping?

d) (i) Which three guerrilla fighters were in hiding in February?

(ii) State clearly what the functions of the two guerrilla fighters were in this month.

e) On the assumption that events follow a similar pattern, in which town should security precautions be concentrated in June? Explain your reasons.

8. Read the passage below and then answer the questions which follow, using your own words wherever possible.

It is not difficult to state the principles which cause certain kinds of inequality to be tolerated, however difficult it may be to apply them in practice. Inequality of power is accepted when the power is used for a social purpose approved by the community, when it is not more extensive than that purpose requires, when its exercise is not arbitrary, but governed by settled rules and when the provisions can be revoked, if their terms are exceeded. Inequality of circumstance is regarded as reasonable, in so far as it is the necessary condition of securing the services which the community requires.

No one complains that captain's give orders and that crews obey them, or that engine drivers must work to a timetable laid down by railway managers. For if captains and managers command, they do so by virtue of their office, and it is by virtue of their office that their instructions are obeyed. They are not the masters, but the fellow servants, of those whose work they direct. Their power is not conferred upon them by birth or wealth, but by the position which they occupy in the productive system, and though their subordinates may grumble at its abuses, they do not dispute the need for its existence.

No one thinks it inequitable that, when a reasonable provision has been made for all, exceptional responsibilities should be compensated by exceptional rewards, as a recognition of the service performed and an inducement to perform it. For different kinds of ability need different conditions to evoke them, and the sentiment of justice is satisfied, not by offering to every man identical treatment, but by treating different individuals in the same way, since being human, they have some requirements which are the same and in different ways, since, being concerned with different services, they have other requirements which differ. What is repellent is not that one man should earn more than others, for where community of environment and a common education and habit of life have bred a common tradition of respect and consideration, these financial consideration are forgotten or ignored. It is that some classes might be excluded from the heritage of civilization which others enjoy and that the fact of human fellowship, which is ultimate and profound, might be obscured by economic contrasts which are trivial and surplus resources of society should be so managed and applied that it is a matter of minor significance whether they receive the same income or not.

The phenomenon which provokes exasperation, in short, is not power and inequality, but arbitrary inequality and responsible power; and in this matter the sentiments of individuals correspond, it may be observed, with the needs of society. What a community requires is that its work should be done, and done with the minimum of friction and maximum of co - operation. Different levels of authority and income derived from differences of office and function promote that end. Distinctions based, not on objective facts, but on personal claims - on birth or wealth or social position impede its attainment. They sacrifice practical realities to meaningless conventions. They cause the position of individuals and the relation of classes to reflect the influence not primarily of personal quality and social needs, but of external conditions, which offer special advantages to some and impose undeserved disabilities upon others. (Adapted from R. H.Tawney, Equality)

a) Explain briefly in your own words what is meant by 'though their subordinates may grumble at its abuses, they do not dispute the need for its existence' (line 13 - 14)

b) Explain what is meant by 'inequality of circumstances' (line 5)

c) Give one example of a case where the author thinks that inequality is reasonable and one other where he thinks it is unreasonable.

d) What does the author mean by:

(i) 'A social purpose approved by the community'? (line 3)

(ii) 'They sacrifice practical realities to meaningless conservations'? (line 35)

e) Explain fully the meaning of the following words or phrases as they are used in the passage:

(i) Arbitrary (line 4)

(ii) By virtue of (line 10)

(iii) Inequitable (line 15)

(iv) Inducement (line 17)

(v) Evoke (line 18)

(vi) Repellent (line 21)

(vii) Heritage of civilization (line 24)

(viii) Trivial (line 26)

(ix) Exasperation (line 29)

(x) Undeserved disabilities (line 38).


For sections in section a, write an essay of between 500 and 800 words.


1. What have coups d'état achieved in your country?

2. What considerations do you have to take into account when choosing a career?


3. Are you for or against zoos?

4. Should tobacco smoking be banned?


5. What are good manners? Are they important?

6. Music is purely for relaxation. Do you agree?


Answer one question from this section.

7. Study the following information very carefully and then answer the questions which follow.

The government of Zukaland is deeply concerned about the country's declining economy and rising unemployment. A considerable number of its citizens had been working abroad in catering and the hotel industry, but have had been had their work permit withdrawn because of high unemployment in the countries where they had been expatriates. They are now laid off and are unlikely to find employment in the present conditions.

Much of the country's trade depends on the growing of tropical fruits, but almost 90% of the plantations in the northwest coastal area are virtually exhausted. The owners plan to abandon these and develop new plantations in the North and East.

The national airline is in serious financial difficulties and is calling for very substantial support from the government, which will find this almost impossible without a massive increase in revenue.

A survey has shown that the country is ideally suited for the development of tourism. The climate is excellent all year and excellent beaches exist on the northwest coast, also near the capital' which is on the south coast.

The only airport is close to the capital and all flights in and out must pass over the beaches adjacent to the capital. This has brought violent complaints from the thousands of citizens who regard these beaches as their playground.

A large foreign tour company (A) has offered to build hotels if a suitable site can be founded. It wishes to cater for wealthy tourists who pay high charges for high standards of accommodation and amenities.

A second large tour company (B) sees a great opportunity to develop cheaper holiday centre's based on simple beach houses made by local people from locally available materials. The company needs a large area with access to good beaches.

Company (A) plans accommodation for 500 tourists: company (B) accommodation for 1500 probably operate at about 1500 Zukas. Initially the national airline will have a monopoly but, if the venture is successful, other airlines may join in.

The fruit companies are pressing government for grants or loans to start new plantations over the next five years.

The tour companies are pressing government to approve their plans so that an immediate start can be made on building and the recruiting of staff. They are stressing that acceptance of their plans could substantially increase the per capita income of the country.

a) In about 100 words, outline the economic problems facing the government of Zukaland.

b) Do you consider that the government should accept the offers of only one of the tour companies or of both? Give your reasons.

c) If it is decided to develop tourism, where would company (A) find the most suitable area for this development? Why?

d) Similarly, which area would be the best choice for company (B)?

e) What benefits to the country are likely to result from government spending on providing such facilities as roads, water and electricity for the tourist industry?

f) Several concerns are pressing the government for attention. What considerations should influence the government in assessing priorities?

8. Read carefully the following passage and then answer the questions which follow, using your own words wherever possible.

We learn from science that multicellular organisms such as mean are higher in the biological scale than unicellular organisms such as amoeba. It is argued by analogy that the agglomeration of men which forms the nation is of a higher order than the individual. It is the individual therefore that must be sacrificed in the interests of the nation. This is merely a modern scientific rendering of the much older analogy used by Hobbes, who pictured society as a greater man whose activities are controlled by a brain in the form is an utterly misleading one. Races and nations are not integrated wholes governed by a specialized brain and central nervous system, but are amorphous agglomerations of individuals. We do not look upon a forest as being on a higher evolutionary level than its trees and similarly there is no reason to regard a crowd of men as being superior to the individuals of which it is composed. The truth is exactly the reverse of this. A study of crowd psychology shows clearly that the behavior of men in the mass is inferior to that of the individuals of which it is made up. Because they are freed from all sense of personal responsibility the men and women who form a crowd are dominated almost entirely by blind and instinctive fears, rapidly changing moods and sudden impulses. They are unable to maintain any distant aim in view but are swayed only by the passions of the moment. A crowd therefore has a strong resemblance to those lower forms of life which respond automatically to every passing stimulus and keep no more distant aim in view. What is true of a crowd is true also to a great extent of that larger collection of individuals forming a nation, for a nation is a loose and tenuous organization, the structure of which readily disintegrates into warring factions and parties. Ouespensky's has said, 'it is the individual man who creates. All inventions, discoveries, improvements, all technical progress, the progress of science, art, architecture and engineering, all philosophical systems, all religious teachings, all these are the results of individual men. The destruction of the results of this activity, their distortion, annihilation, obliteration from the face of the earth, this is the activity of human masses.'

The law of the crowd and of that greater crowd, the nation, is the law of the jungle, the subjugation of the weaker by the stronger. Only when the crowd breaks up into smaller groups are the individuals who composed it able to realize the true nature of the crimes they have previously committed, and it is this interplay between small groups of men which exercises a moderating action on the behavior of nations. Freedom of thought, freedom of thought, freedom of the press and the free exchange of ideas are therefore necessary to national health, and one of the first and most necessary acts of a dictator is to destroy every form of group and association in which free opinions can be expressed. Secret police must ensure that men are able to meet together in fellowship to discuss politics or national affairs.

(Adapted from meaning and purpose by Kenneth walker)

Answer the following questions.

a) Explain, in not more than 100 words, Ouespensky's statement (line 20 - 24)

b) What, according to the last paragraph, are the consequences of 'the law of the crowd' being accepted as 'the law of the jungle'?

c) Give the meaning of the following words in the context of the passage:

i. Agglomeration (line 2)

ii. Analogy (line 2)

iii. Specialized (line 8)

iv. Amorphous (line 8)

v. Tenuous (line 19)

vi. Subjugation (line 26)

vii. Interplay (line 28).

d) Explain the meaning of the following phrases, as used in the passage:

i. Integrated wholes (lines 8 - 9)

ii. On a higher evolutionary level (line 9)

iii. Crowd psychology (line 11)

iv. Every passing stimulus (line 17)

v. Philosophical systems (line 22)

vi. Moderation action (line 28)


1. 'It is the mind of the citizen but not the economy of Uganda that needs rehabilitation'. Discuss.

2. To what extent has the AIDS scourge changed the lifestyle of the people of Uganda?

3. Why is environmental degradation a cause of great concern all over the world?

4. How justifiable is it to describe politics as "a dirty game "?

5. Assess the role of the mass media in Uganda today.

6. 'Economic rather than political factors explain the brain drain problem in Uganda'. Discuss.


Answer one question from this section.

7. Study the following information carefully and then answer the questions which follow.

A group of thugs are planning to stage a fake road block long a busy road with the intention of looting the travelers along it. Each of the thugs must have three good quantities for the plan to succeed. The qualities required, in order of merit, are:

- Know target shooting.

- Be a driver and mechanic.

- Must think and act fast.

- Be able to speak several languages.

- Be a fast runner.

Below are the names of the thugs and their qualities:

1) Ndalira - driver and mechanic, thinks and acts fast and is a linguist.

2) Mafwora - fast runner, target shooter and linguist.

3) Musoke - target shooter, driver and mechanic and fast runner.

4) Achomi - linguist, fast runner and acts and thinks fast.

5) Angiru - driver and mechanic, target shooter and acts and thinks fast.

The various duties required to carry out the plan are as follows:

- Interceptor.

- Driver.

- Looter.

- Guard.

a) Which one of the above thugs has the best overall qualities? Show how you arrive at your answer.

b) Assign each thug a duty based on his qualities.

c) If the person you had assigned to guard had a mishaps during the execution of the plan. Who would take over his work? Give reasons.

d) After a successful execution of the plan, each of the thugs must take a different route to disguise evidence. However, one of them must remain to mix freely with the local residents while the whole loot is driven away to a particular destination. Each route has a definite problem as listed below:

Route A - has a regular security patrol.

Route B - is straight but very long.

Route C - has a road block.

Route D - has forest and wild animals.

Who should take which route and why?

e) Which of the thugs should remain?

8. Read the passage below and then answer the questions which follow, using your own words wherever possible.

My mother was ambitious for her boys. Having discovered that it was impossible to push her husband on to accept larger and wider responsibilities, either in his work or more generally in life, she turned to jack and me. We were still too young for her to be specific in her plans for our future; but she talked frequently of careers, the advantage of a good education, and the stark need of ensuring that we should equip ourselves for "the battle of life", a phrase that still echoed from the receding walls of the nineteenth century.

Jack's steady development obviously bolstered her hopes, though I still cannot understand why she did not fasten on his outstanding talents and guide him toward a career where they could be used. It may have been that father prevented her by his stubborn resistance to any course outside his ken. About that time, I first heard him state the axiom that what was good enough for him should be good enough for his boys, bless them. This statement was made then, as always subsequently, with warmth of parental love that demonstrated itself by a tremolo in his voice and an outstretched arm to gather us to him.

No doubt the poverty and hardship which he known in boyhood had fixed in his character an obstinacy born of dread of hunger and degradation. He was too innocent and too lacking in intellectual confidence, perhaps even too fundamentally cowed, to contemplate going out to fight for himself in the open market. He had a curious belief that money making was a dirty game, something not even talked about and all he asked was that he should be assured of a regular income no matter how small.

He saw the civil service as the only way for himself and therefore his sons must follow him. This acceptance of his own course as the best was evidence of the contradictions and self thwarting in his nature. Humble is his claim on society, he was enclosed in an arrogance that made him incapable of accepting another point of view, even if he were taught to see it. Mother had given up trying to teach him. She got her way only by her periodical outbreaks of angry masterfulness, before which he instantly succumbed.

His loyalty to the civil service and to his colleagues in it, was that of a soldier to the regiment. But he remained content without promotion, and whenever a junior was posted above him he professed to prefer it that way, though his explanations of this unworldliness dwindled away into incoherent phrases and vague gestures in dismissal of the subject. It had the effect of a smoke screen through which mother's reproaches could not penetrate.

"that's enough, old girl; that's enough," he would say, deeply hurt, at every attempt to prod him into competitive action. His mind Havered at any form of mental or moral conflict, and he was incapable even of argument or debate. This gave him great advantage, maintaining him in a perpetual age of innocence. But it gave mother the task and burden of two. Her double daily chores as housewives and school teacher were paralleled by her double responsibility in bringing up her sons.

Perhaps she too was afraid of jack's talent and perplexed by the way in which it showed itself so variously; in music, in drawing, in mechanical inventiveness. How to harness it to the pursuit of a career would have puzzled parents with much more knowledge of the professions, much wider cultural range and experience, than our mother and father possessed. Like most people at that time and in that walk of life, they were grateful for small assurances: a safe job, a respectable anonymity, a local esteem. Outside that limit lay a dangerous unknown which included crime, genius, fame, notoriety and exalted rank. All the people who came to our house (few and infrequent) were of this persuasion, unanimous in their social and moral quietism. Behind my own parents' acquiescence in this lay an element of mystery, revealed only occasionally by oblique remarks and references and by my father's perverse attitude toward the aristocracy and to all manifestations of ambition or of pursuits larger than he could comprehend.


a) What does the passage tell you about the author's father?

b) What is your impression of the relationship between the boys' parents?

c) "Perhaps she too was afraid of jack's talent......" (Line 43). Explain why according to the author, his brother's talents frightened his parents.

d) Explain what you understand by the following phrases and words as used in the passage:

i) Specific in her plans (line 4)

ii) Any course outside his ken (line 12)

iii) Fundamentally cowed (line 20)

iv) Incoherent phrases (line 34)

v) Reproaches (line 35)

vi) Havered (line 38)

vii) Were of his persuasion (line 50 - 51)

viii) Perverse (line 53)


For sections in section a, write an essay of between 500 and 800 words.


1. What have coups d'état achieved in your country?

2. What considerations do you have to take into account when choosing a career?


3. Discuss, with examples, the relationship between pure and applied sciences.

4. What measures do you suggest to deal with the rapid increase in population in your country?


5. What do you understand by "fashion"?

Why does fashion change?

6. If one of the indigenous languages in your country was to become the 'national language', which one would you strongly recommend? Give reasons for your choice.


7. Study the information in (i) and (ii) carefully and then answer the questions which follow.

i) An Office Manager must assign offices to six staff members. The available offices, numbered 1 - 6 consecutively, are arranged in a row, and are separated only by 1.5 metre - high dividers. Therefore, voices, sounds and cigarette smoke readily pass from each office to those on either side.

Miss Agoliama's work requires her to speak on the telephone frequently thought the day.

Mr. Lokure and Mr. Ddungu often talk to one another while they work, and prefer to have adjacent offices.

Miss Mukiibi, the senior employee, is entitled to office 5, which has the largest widow.

Mr. Ogurememe needs silence in the office(s) adjacent to his own.

Mr. Olauna, Mr. Lokure, and Mr. Ogurememe all smoke. Miss Mukiibi is allergic to tobacco smoke and must have non - smokers in the office(s) adjacent to her own.

Unless otherwise specified, all employees maintain silence while in their offices.


a) Which office is the best location for Mr. Lokure?

b) Who would be the best employee to occupy the office furthest from Mr. Ddungu?

c) In which offices should the three employees who smoke be placed?

d) Which of the following events, occurring one month after the assignment of offices, would most likely lead to a request for a change in office assignment by one or more employees?

A) Miss Agoliama's deciding that she needs silence in the office(s) adjacent to her own.

B) Mr. Ddungu contracting laryngitis.

C) Mr. Ogurememe giving up smoking.

D) Mr. Olauna taking over the duties formerly assigned to Miss Agoliama.

E) Miss Mukiibi installing a noisy teletype machine in her office.

ii) Crime in the streets has reached truly frightening proportions. Much of the blame must go to judges who have restricted our police in the performance of their duties. Crime will not be eradicated as long as the police are prevented from taking steps they deem necessary to apprehend those who are clearly guilty of criminal conduct.


If the statements above are true, can each of the following interferences be validly drawn? Support your answer.

e) Crime will be eradicated when restrictions on the police are removed.

f) Judges have no right to restrict the actions of the police.

g) The judges are unconcerned with the right of society to be free of crime.

8. Read the passage below and then answer the questions which follow, using your own words wherever possible.

Every society must assign ranking to its members. Among animals there are orders of status that are fought over. The strongest is the boss.

This also occurs among human beings as, for instance, in street gangs of young people. In general, though, this turns out to be impracticable since more is involved than mere muscle power. Other criteria have to be sought. Heredity plays a special role in traditional societies. The oldest son inherits the farm, the title and authority. There is wisdom in that since conflicts are avoided. Violence must not be employed to contest decisions that derive from nature itself.

In modern industrial society, with its high degree of division of labour and adaptation to rapid change, the criteria of hereditary alone again turn out to e impracticable. The fact that someone is his father's oldest son scarcely guarantees that he is not a fool who will ruin the farm, or the state. For that reason, the old 'natural' criteria increasingly seem 'unjust' and are being replaced by new and 'artificial' yardsticks.

These latter include the principle of achievement determined through competition. This can be illustrated by way of sport. A stop - watch or tape measure can be used to ascertain beyond question whoever runs fastest or jumps furthest, and whoever is the victor or the champion. It is hardly a matter of chance that competitive sports exert much great fascination.

Wherever the stop - watch and the tape measure are insufficient because intelligence or attributes of character are required for specific tasks, the gap is filled by a test. The development of tests in a diversity of forms and applications, ever more elaborated, is logical since what is required is to separate the suitable from the unsuitable, and to find the right man for the right position.

Anyone who protests and rebels, saying something like "the achievement principle is invalid sine in reality only success decides', gets entangled in contradictions. Such objections only pressurize people into making the criteria even more precise, into improving the initial opportunities for the many over the few and into further perfecting the tests. The 'tested' man demonstrates our society's striving towards justice. Is there any alternative? Should we once again give preference to the principle of inheritance, or of membership of church or party?

The problem lies else where. My thesis is that this equitable society where everyone thanks to tests gets a suitable position would be a completely in human society. After all, what becomes in such a society of people who achieve little the handicapped, the ill, the failures the old people? Even the greatest achievers must be filled with fear of not making the grade. We know that at some time we will weaken, and that each of us will succumb. Viewed in that way, the many psychological illness, depression and aggression and resort to alcohol and drugs are all too understandable.

Material provision is not enough. Even though our society could not have developed and cannot survive without the achievement principle, it also cannot remain in existence on that basis alone. The achievement principle must be complemented and balanced by a counter principle, the principle of love. That entails an incalculable and infinite value, taking precedence over and above all achievements, being man's due, every man's need.

The principle of love cannot be measured or 'proved but only believed in arguments can be brought forward on its behalf only if there exists a foundation beyond social calculations.

Taken literally, the principle of love is the consideration for the superfluous. In practical terms it appears to achieve nothing and not to be necessary. If however, our society is to remain humane or to become humane again, it is indeed the superfluous that turns out to be necessary and absolutely crucial for existence.


a) Suggest an appropriate title for the above passage.

b) Why does the author claim that heredity is

i. Important in traditional societies,

ii. Less successful in modern societies?

c) Explain in about fifty words why the author comes to the conclusion that "the " tested" man demonstrates our society's striving towards justice"(line 28).

d) Why does the author consider that an "equitable society" fails? (line 31)

e) Give the meaning of the following words and phrase as they are used in the passage:

i. Impracticable (line 4)

ii. Muscle power (line 5)

iii. Criteria(line 5)

iv. 'artificial' yardsticks (line 13)

v. Attributes (line 20)

vi. My thesis (line 31)

vii. Complemented (line 40)

viii. Incalculable (line 41)

ix. Taken literally (line 47)

x. Superfluous (line 47)

f) In about 150 words, describe what the author says about "the principle of love".


1. What do you understand by "human rights"?

How have human rights been violated in Uganda?

2. Under what circumstances is the invasion of one country by another justified?

3. Should efforts be made to preserve traditional forms of marriage in Uganda? Give reasons for your answer?

4. What is a balanced diet?

Why is it important to have a balanced diet?

5. Discuss the part music plays in public and private life.

6. What do you understand by "primary Health Care"?

Why should primary Health Care receive more emphasis today than before in a country like Uganda?


Answer one question from this section.

7. Study the information in (i) and (ii) carefully and then answer the questions which follow.

(i) After months of talent searching for an administrative assistant in the president's office, the number of applicants has been narrowed down to five (A, B, C, D and E). it was announced that the finalist would be chosen after a series of all day group upon the following procedure:

1. The interviews will be held once a week.

2. Only 3 candidates will appear at these interviews.

3. Each candidate will appear at least once.

4. If it becomes necessary to call applicants for additional interviews, no more than one such applicant should be asked to appear next week.

5. It was agreed that whenever candidate B appears, A should also be present.

6. Because of travel difficulties, it was agreed that C will appear for only one interview.


a) At the first interview, the following candidates appear; A, B and D. which combinations of candidates can be called for the interview to be held next week? Give reasons for your answer.

b) Which is a possible sequence of combinations for interviews in two successive weeks? Give reasons for your answer.

c) If A, B, and D appear at the interview and D is called for an additional interview the following week, which two candidates may be asked to appear with D?

d) Which one of the following correctly states the procedure followed by the interviewing committee?

i. After the second interview, all applicants have appeared at least once.

ii. The committee sees at least one applicant a second time.

iii. If a third session is held it is possible for all applicants to appear at least twice.

ii) During president terror's term of office, the cost of living has increased by 105%. If president Terror is re - elected, more hardships will surely follow. Don't vote for president Terror!


e) What has speaker assumed in the argument above?

f) Which one of the following arguments (A, B, C, D, E) is most like argument (ii) above? Give reasons for your answer?

A) Air pollution from vehicle fumes has greatly worsened since the new road was opened. To prevent even worse air pollution, we should oppose construction of more new roads.

B) Mineral prospecting has destroyed the environment in this area. Vote for the proposed law prohibiting mineral prospecting.

C) Ever since the capital city was moved to Kaikamosing, public school services have deteriorated. Save our schools - vote to move the capital city back to Morukatipe.

D) Parliament has failed to take decisive steps to solve the guerilla war crisis in this country. It is time to elect a new body of truly national representatives who will deal with this problem more effectively.

E) Average rainfall in this district was 75% higher last year than normal. The law of averages shows that this year's rainfall will be lower than normal.

g) Which of the following statements would strengthen argument (ii) given above? Give reasons for your answer.

A) Cost of living is determined by forces beyond the control of any one person.

B) President Terror fought efforts to impose statewide controls on prices of commodities.

C) The price of commodities increased by an average of 170% nationwide during president terror's term.

D) President terror owns 100 shares of commodities.

E) Over 15% of the amount paid by customers for commodities is made up of state taxes.

8. Read the passage below and then answer the questions which follow, using your own words wherever possible.

To be called upon to do the impossible is a very high compliment, for is it not a tribute to great feats already done, apparent impossibilities faced and overcome in the past? That compensating thought, however, is not always available as reward and stimulus to those who feel that they are confronted with something beyond the limits of the possible. We all know what it is to have that feeling. Even before we begin to feel it for ourselves our parents have felt it for us. The foundest father, looking upon his new - born babe; must, at first blush, feel that it is beyond the bounds of possibility that this unseasonably vocal and not very beautiful stranger will in a few years be a bright and beloved child whose companionship and interest will mean all the world to him. And so it goes on. The small schoolboy sees a great gulf fixed between his unheeded self and the demigods of the first eleven. Later he gazes blankly at a mountain - wall of examinations and feels that he can never climb it. When he gets out into the world it seems impossible that one so ill - equipped and inexperienced can ever be one of those who direct the affairs of men. But the dawn of "golden vista'd children" brightens into brilliant day, and the small boy becomes the many coloured hero, savior of many matches, to fresh generations of small boys. The despair of teachers and examiners blossoms out into the leader of a business, at the Bar, of an army, of a nation. Looking back to his blind beginnings and forward to untold ages, what limits shall man himself lay down to what he may become?

Some element of the impossible, or at least some convincing appearance of it, is an essential of all advance. For progress, something is needed that still does not yet, that may possibly never be, but that still does not cease to call for an attempt at its fulfillment. A man or a world that had no wants, or could get all that was wanted for the asking would be a man and a world doomed to satiety, stagnation and decay. What is impossible her and now is the goal, the lodestar, the beckoning ideal of the future. It makes irresistible appeal to the bold, the sanguine and the forward - ranging spirit, however much it may daunt faint hearts and feeble knees. Without it, seas would never have been crossed, poles discovered, heaven - high peaks ascended; instead of having the upper air on the wings of the wind, man would still be creeping among the brutes that perish. All very well, you may say, for youth with its tireless zest and its unbounded ambitions and aspirations. It is different for the older man, who has learned by hard experience what his limitations are. He, if not "too old at forty", knows quite well at fifty, and even better at sixty, that he has reached the circumference of his possibilities and that his field of activity must henceforth be a steadily shrinking circle. That is true enough of material, physical, and even mental possibilities. But it is not true of the spirit. In that realm age has no power to stale and wither. There is still room for the high adventure of attempting the impossible. The ideal can still call still find a response in upward effort. For the greyest of spirits, to the very end.

"all experience is an arch where thro' Gleams that untraveled world whose margin fades for ever and for ever as I move."


a) Suggest an appropriate title for the above passage.

b) Give simply in your own words, the meaning of the last part of the passage, from "But it is not true....." to ".......... Effort". (line 62 - 67)

c) Explain in your own words what the author means by " all experience is an arch where thro' I move". (line 69 - 71)

d) In about 150 words, write a summary of the passage.

e) Give the meaning of the following words and phrases as they are used in the passage:

i. Compliment (1.2)

ii. Compensating thought (1.4& 5)

iii. Unseasonably vocal (1. 13)

iv. Demi - gods (1. 18 - 19)

v. Ill - equipped (1.22)

vi. Dawn of "golden vista'd children' (1.24 - 25)

vii. Many - coloured hero (1. 26 - 27)

viii. Blind beginnings (1.31)

ix. Doomed to satiety (1.41 - 42)

x. Irresistible (1.45)

xi. Sanguine (1.45)

xii. Daunt (1.47)

xiii. Wings of the wind (1.50)

xiv. Circumference of his possibilities (1. 58 - 59)

xv. Unscalable (1.66)